Great Britain - The Country and Its People by James O'Driscoll.pdf - VSIP.INFO (2023)


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o James O'Driscoll

oxford university press






country and people


Geographically speaking. Politically speaking. The Four Nauons. The supremacy of England. National Loyalties

2 story

6 Political Life


Prehistory. The Roman Period (43 -4 10). The German invasions (410--1066). The Middle Ages (I 0 66-148r;). The 16th century. The 17th century. The 18th century. The 19th century. the twentieth century

7 To monarchy


clm atc . country and settlement. Environment and Pollution. London. southern England. The Midlands. northern England. Scotland. Wales. no ireland

4 Identity Ethnic identity: Native British. Ethnic identity: non-native British people. The family . Geographic Identity. Class. Man and woman . Religious and Political Identity. Social and everyday contacts. Identity in Ireland. be british


The Eppeerencc: The Reality. The role of the monarch. The value of monarchy. The future of the monarchy

8 The Government 3 Geography


Public opinion on politics. The style of democracy. O con stit uu on. The style of politics. The party y srs have . the modern situation


The Cabinet. The Prime Minister. The civil scrvtcc. Central and local government, local government services

9) Parliament


The atmosphere of Parliament ent. The life of a deputy. Parliamentary Bust. The company system in Parliament. The Lord's House

10) Options The system. Formal agreements. The campaign . election day . election night Current results and the future

5 Stereotypes of Attitudes and Changes . english vs. Bnti sh. sm multicultural . conservatism . Be different . The love of nature. The love of ants. Formality and informality. Public Spirit and Amateurism. privacy and sex

II The Law The Police and the Public . Crime and Criminal Procedure. The legal system. The profession of lawyer



12 International Relations


The end of the empire. The armed forces. Transatlantic Rough Trains. The sovereignty of the Union: Europe. The Sovereignty of the Union: Scotland and Wales. Union Sovereignty: Northern Ireland

18 welfare

The benefits system, social and charitable services, the national health authority, the medical profession

19 Housing 13 Religion

1 21

religion and politics. Anglicanism. Catholicism. Others, your mainstream Christian churches. Other religions, churches and religious movements

14 jEd u ca tion

- Historical context . organization . Style. Recent developments. school life . Public tenders. Education beyond the age of sixteen

Earn money . labor organizations. The Structure of Commerce and Industry. The distribution of wealth. Finance and Investments - Spend Money: Shopping . store opening hours


21 Sport and competition


22 As Artes


The Arts in Society - Characteristics of British Arts and Literature, Theater and Film, Music, Literature. the plastic arts

15 1

The importance of the national press. The two types of national newspapers, The characteristics of the national press: politics, The characteristics of the national press: sex and scandal. ' The BBC ' Television: Organization, Television: Style



Attitudes towards food, eating out, alcohol, bars

A national passion, The social importance of sport, Cricket, Football, Rugby, Animals in sport, Other sports, Gambling

15 Economy and everyday life

it's 4 pm


Dwelling instead of dwelling , Public and private property , The meaning of 'home' , Individuality and conformity , Interiors: the meaning of habitability , Owning and renting , Housing

20 food and drinks 130


16 2

On the road, public transport in cities, public transport between cities, the story of the “air and water” canal.

23 Holidays and Special Occasions Traditional beach holiday. modem vacation. Christmas and New Year. Other non-tabular annual occasions





Who is this book for? This book is for learners of English as a foreign language at all levels, from intermediate upwards, who want to know more about Great Britain. It is invaluable for students taking British Studies courses and for those studying British culture as part of a general English course. It is intended for anyone who recognizes that knowledge of British life is necessary to improve understanding and use of the English language spoken in Great Britain. How many times have you misunderstood a sentence in a British text and found that the dictionary didn't help. How many times have you understood every word a Brit said, but didn't understand what he said or meant? In any society, writers and speakers leave some things unsaid or explained, assuming that their readers and listeners are equipped with basic knowledge that comes from the same cultural background. You may have achieved a high level of English proficiency. but the British are difficult to understand because they lack prior knowledge. This book aims to fill in the blanks so that when you encounter British authors and speakers you will be closer to the same position as an averagely educated Brit. Of course it's impossible for you to put yourself in exactly the same position as the British. They shared many distinctly British experiences and influences from birth. That's why this book examines the facts and figures so that you can begin to understand the British way of life in general.

What This Book Is About This book contains all the background information you will need about the structure of the British political system and other aspects of public life. But there's more to it than that. Throughout the book, special attention is paid to the attitudes of the British. It is very important to know them, as they are the 'color' language of the British. For example, to understand the word “Catholic” used in Britain, it is not enough to know the legal status of Catholicism and how many Catholics there are; You also need to know something about the general place of religion in British minds and how the country's different religious groups think about each other (see chapter 1.3). Because the settings are so important, the re

Introduction are two chapters dedicated exclusively to them: one deals with the attitude of the British towards themselves (Chapter 4) and the other with their attitude towards certain aspects of life in general (Chapter 5). All of the information in this book is included for one or both of these possible reasons. Some of them, for example the mention of the Union Jack (see page J 3), are there because they are common knowledge for a British person. But others, for example the description of the matching system in Parliament (see page 72), are not as well known. They are used to illustrate more general points. This book is not an encyclopedia. Great Britain shares many characteristics with other countries. This book focuses on what makes Britain different.

How to Use This Book Each chapter has a main body of text, plus additional material in the margins and elsewhere, presented in various forms (tables, graphs, text, images, etc.). Sometimes in the main text you will find a request for reference to this additional material, indicated by the symbol t. Information provided in this way may illustrate a point made in the main text. or add additional details or present a related issue. The two types of material can be read independently. As you read, remember that "facts" are relative things. For example. When you read (on page 10) that St. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, you get an indisputable fact. However, some of the most important aspects of life cannot be described with concrete facts. For example, this book refers to the importance of privacy in the UK. This is not a fact; it is just an interpretation of the facts. Of course, such comments were not made lightly – and, for the most part, other commentators on Britain have done the same. But it is always possible that another commentator, looking at the same question, will come to a different conclusion. At the end of each chapter there is a section with questions. The questions serve as a starting point for class discussion, as writing topics or simply to get you thinking about the different aspects of British life described in this chapter, especially in comparison to life in your own country. Sometimes you will also find suggestions for further reading and other activities. A Note on Terminology Throughout this book, you will encounter the words state, country, and nation. These have a similar meaning but are not used interchangeably. The word State has a political meaning. It is used when referring to a government agency unit. The word notion is used when referring to the English, Scottish, Welsh or Irish and when the focus is on the sense of identity these people feel. The word country is used more generally to refer to Great Britain or any of its nations, with no specific reference to government or people.



i country and people

This is a book about Britain. But what exactly is Great Britain? And who are the English? The following table illustrates the problem. You might think so when it comes to international sports. The situation would be simple - one country. a team. But you can see that this is definitely not the case in the UK. For each of the four sports or sporting events listed in the table. There are a number of national team numbers that could be described as 'British'. This chapter describes how this situation came about and explains the different names used when talking about Great Britain.

Geographically, two large islands and several much smaller ones lie off the northwest coast of Europe. Collectively they are known as the British Isles. The biggest island is called Great Britain. The other big island is called Ireland (t> The British Isles).

Politically, there are two states in the British Isles. One such goyern inhabits most of the island of Ireland. This state is usually called the Republic of Ireland. It is also called "Eire" (its name in the Irish language). Informally, it is referred to simply as "Ireland" or "the Republic". The other state has sovereignty over the rest of the British Isles (all of Great Britain, the northern part of Ireland and most of the smaller islands). This country is the main subject of this book. Its official name is United Kingdom of Great Britain and the North~

British Isles national teams in selected sports

England or Olympic Games Cricket

rugby union





northern Ireland

Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland

Great Britain











Ireland Scotland and

northern Ireland

irish republic

politically speaking

Ireland, although it is generally known by a shorter name. For example, it is referred to as “United Kingdom” in the Eurovision Song Contest, the United Nations and the European Parliament. In everyday speech, this is often shortened to "the United Kingdom". In other contexts it is referred to as "Great Britain". For example, this is the name you hear when you win a gold medal! Winner goes to the podium at the Olympic Games. The slicker s on cars ('GB') are another example of this name being used. In writing and speech that is not particularly formal or informal, the name "Britain" is used. The usual adjective when referring to anything related to Great Britain is "British".

the british isles



0 (1















Canal • Ilhas *It • © Oxford University Press

... Crown Dependencies

There are two small basins in the British Isles that have special policies. These "Crown Dependencies" are the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. Each has complete internal self-government, including its own parliament and tax system. Both are "governed" by a Lieutenant Governor appointed by Bnush government officials.



i country and people

the four nations

Some historical and poetic names

People often refer to Great Britain by a different name. They call it "England". But that's not entirely true and it might make some people angry. England is just one of the four nations that make up the British Isles (England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland). Their political unification was a gradual process lasting several hundred years (see Chapter 2). It was completed in 1800 when the Parliament of Ireland was merged with the Parliament of England, Scotland and Wales at West Minster, so that all of the British Isles became a single state - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. However, in 19 2 2 most of Ireland became a separate state (see Chapter 12). In the past, the four nations differed from each other in almost every aspect of life. First they were different

Albion is a word used in some poetic or rhetorical contexts to refer to England. It was the original Roman name for Great Britain. It may come from the Latin word albus, which means white. The chalk white cliffs around Dover on the south coast are the first part of England seen when crossing the sea from mainland Europe. Britannia is the name given by the Romans to the southern province of Great Britain (encompassing roughly the area of ​​present-day England). of power over the sea). ), hence the patriotic song that begins with 'Ru le Britannia, Britannia rules the waves'. The figure of Britannia appeared on the reverse of many British coins for over 300 years.

.... Identification marks of the four nations



EB St. George's Cross


Cadwallader's Dragon



~~ Saint Andrew's Cross


Saint Patrick's Cross

lion rampant

irish republic

this island


tea plant


cor 2



Leek/Daffodil I

• • •

patron saint

Saint George

Saint David

saint andre

Saint Patrick

saint's day

23 Open the

i leave

30th of November

March 17th


There is some disagreement among the Welsh over which is the true national plant. but the leek is the best known.


As usually used by sports teams from different nations.

the four nations

racial. The people of Ireland, Wales and the Scottish Highlands were of the Celtic race; those from England and the lowlands of Scotland were mainly of Germanic origin. This difference was reflected in the languages ​​they spoke. People in Celtic areas spoke Celtic languages: Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh. People in German-speaking areas spoke German dialects (including the dialect that evolved into modern English). Nations also tended to have different economic, social, and legal systems. Today these distinctions are blurred. But the ys haven't totally disappeared. Although there is only one government for the whole of Great Britain and people have the same passport wherever they live in Great Britain, some aspects of government are organized separately (and sometimes differently) across the four parts of the United Kingdom. In addition, the Welsh people feel, Scots and Irish very strong identity.

John Bull is a fictional character intended to embody English and certain English virtues. (He can be compared to Uncle Sam in the US.) He appears in hundreds of cartoons from the 19th century. His appearance is typical of an eighteenth-century country gentleman, reminiscent of an idyllic rural past (see Chapter s).

.. Other Signs of National Identity The following are also associated by the British with one or more of the four nations. Names The prefix "Mac" or "I" in surnames (such as McCall, MacCarthy, MacDonald) is always Scottish or Irish. The prefix '0' (as in O'Brien, O'Hara) is distinctly Irish. A large number of surnames (eg Davis, Evans, Jones, Lloyd, Morgan, Price, Rees, Williams) indicate a Welsh origin (although many are found throughout England). The most common surname in England and Scotland is actually "Smith". First names can also be significant. The Scottish form of 'John' is 'Ian' and its Irish form is 'Sean' (although all three names are common throughout Great Britain). There are also nicknames for Scottish, Irish and Welsh men. For example, an English, Welsh or Irish person might refer to and address a Scottish friend as "Jock", regardless of his or her first name. The Irish are called "Paddy" or "Mick" and the Welsh are known as "Dai" or "Taffy". If the person is not a friend, the nickname can sound quite offensive.

Clothing The kilt, a plaid skirt worn by men, is a well-known symbol of Scottish feeling (although it is rarely worn in everyday life). Musical instruments The harp is a symbol of Wales and Ireland. Bagpipes are considered distinctly Scottish (although a smaller type is also used in traditional Irish music). Characteristics These are some well-known national stereotypes in Great Britain. For example, the Irish are known to be great orators, the Scots are reputed to be careful with money, and the Welsh are known for their singing abilities. Of course, these characteristics are just caricatures and not reliable descriptions of individuals from these countries. However, they point to some subtle differences in the value placed on certain behaviors across countries.

John Bull Briton is a word used in official contexts and in formal writings to describe a citizen of the United Kingdom. "Ancient Bretons" is the name of the race of people who lived in England before and during the Roman occupation (43-410 AD). These are the ancestors of today's Welsh people. Caledonia. Cambria and Hibernia were the Roman names for Scotland, Wales and Ireland respectively. The words are now commonly used in science classes (e.g. the type of English used in Ireland is sometimes called "Hibrno-Enghsh") and for names of organizations (e.g. the airline "British Caledonian"). Erin is a poetic name for Ireland "The Emerald Isle" is a different way of referring to Ireland, evoking the lush green of its landscape.

me me


i country and people

... The Invisible Scotsman Here are a few brief excerpts from an article by a Scotswoman, Janet Swinney, who expresses her anger at how England's dominance over Scotland is reflected in the way things are described. First, there is the "default control". A map appeared in the Observer newspaper in May 1989 under the headline 'Britain's Dirty Rivers'. It only showed England and Wales. Janet Swinney says: “What does this illustration mean? Does Scotland have no rivers or filthy rivers, or did someone just use the word 'Britain' for England and Wales?" Second, she points to the common usage of England/English in the British/British sense: A few years ago I traveled to Turkey with a mixed group of Brits, most of the Brits were happy to write their nationality on their boarding passes as English and saw no offense in that. It is also not uncommon for Scots to receive mail from other parts of the UK addressed to Scotland, England. Last year, works of art from the Soviet Union destined for the Edinburgh International Festival were sent to the City Art Gallery in Edinburgh, England. A third aspect of the mastery is evident in the names given to publications and organizations: "The practice is to label anything relating to England and (generally) Wales as if it were the norm, and anything Scottish as if it were a deviation from it. Why else is there The Times Educational Supplement and the Times Educational Supplement (Scotland), the National Trust and the National Trust for Scotland, the Trades Union Congress and the Scottish Trades Union Congress? its geographical markers: The TimesEducationalSupplement (England and Wales) etc.”.

J. Swinney, „The Invisible Scot“, English Today, abril [989

The dominance of England Perhaps there is an excuse for people using the word "England" when they mean "Britain". It cannot be denied that the dominant culture in Britain today is specifically English. The political system used in all four nations today is of English origin, and English is the main language of all four nations. Many aspects of daily life are organized according to English customs and practices. But the political unification of Great Britain was not achieved by mutual consent. On the other hand. This happened because England was able to exert its economic and military power over the other three nations (see Chapter 2). Today, English dominance can be seen in the way various aspects of British public life are depicted (C> The Invisible Scotsman). For example, the money supply in Great Britain is controlled by the Bank of England (there is no such thing as a "Bank of Great Britain"). The country's first queen is commonly known as 'Elizabeth the Second', although Scotland and Northern Ireland never had an 'Elizabeth the First' (Elizabeth I of England and Wales reigned from 1553 to 1603). The term 'Anglo' is also common (The Angels were a Germanic tribe that settled in England in the 5th century. The word "England" derives from their name.) For example, newspapers and TV news talk about "Anglo-American relations " to refer to relations between the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States (and not just between England and the United States).

National loyalties When talking to people from Great Britain, it is safer to use 'Britain' when talking about where they live and 'British' as ​​an adjective to describe nationality. That way, you're not likely to offend anyone. Of course it's not wrong to speak of 'people of England' if that's what you mean - people living within the geographic boundaries of England. After all, that's where most Britons live (C> Populations in 1995). But it should always be remembered that England does not make up the whole of the United Kingdom. There is a long history of immigration to England from Scotland, Wales and Ireland. As a result, there are millions of people who live in England but would never consider themselves English. They may have lived in England all their lives, but to them they are either Scots, Welsh or Irish - even if in the latter case they are British citizens and not Irish. These people support the country of their parents or grandparents and not England in sporting competitions. They too, given the opportunity, would play for that country rather than England. For example, if you had listened to the members of the Republic of Ireland World Cnp football team speak in 1994c, you would have heard many different types of English accents and some Scottish accents, but very few ts Irish accents. Majority

National Loyalties... 1995 population figures for players not living in Ireland and not brought up in Ireland. Yet most of them would never have considered England playing 48.9m for any country other than Ireland! 5.1 million Scotland The same applies to the other million British citizens Wales 2.9 million Northern Ireland 1.6 million whose family origins collectively lie outside the British Isles. People of Caribbean or South Asian descent. For example, it doesn't matter that the 58.6 million people in the UK are called 'British' (many are proud of it), but it is clear that many of them would like to be called 'English'. And whenever the West Indies estimate these numbers, they are given by

If an Indian cricket team plays in England, it certainly isn't England.

that they support! There is indeed a complicated division of loyalties among many people in Britain and particularly in England. A black man whose family is from the Caribbean will temporarily support the West

by the UK Government Department of Actuaries, based on the 1991 census. The total population of Great Britain is expected to continue to increase by very small amounts until around the year 202!;.

India when they play cricket against England. but the same person

is pleased to be so passionate about supporting England in a sport like football that the West Indies do not play. A person whose family is Irish but has always lived in England would like Ireland to beat England at football, but would also like England to beat Italy (for example). This crossroads of loyalty can work the other way too. The English don't consider the Scots, Welsh or Irish to be 'foreigners' (or at least not the same kind of foreigners as other foreigners!). An English commentator at a sporting event where a Scottish, Irish or Welsh team is playing a team from outside the British Isles will tend to identify with that team as if it were English.

A wonderful example of dual identity was heard on the BBC in 1992 during the Eurovision Song Con test. The BBC's lead actor was Terry Wogan. Wogan is an Irishman who became Britain's most popular TV talk show host in the 1980s. Towards the end of the show, with the song voting almost completed, it became clear that the competition (in which European countries compete to present the best new pop song) would be won by Ireland or Great Britain. Within five-

minute, Mr. Wogan could be heard repeatedly using the pronouns "we" and "LIS"; sometimes he meant Great Britain and sometimes he meant Ireland! ... The Uni on Jack The Union Jack is the national flag of the United Kingdom. It is a combination of the Cross of Saint George, the Cross of Saint Andrew and the Cross of Saint Patrick

(identifying symbols of the four nations).

union jack




i country and people


Think of your country's most famous symbols and nationality signs. Are these the same types of real objects (e.g. plants, clothes) used in the UK? 2 In 1970, the BBC aired a series of programs on the history of the British Empire. Prior to the start of the series, she was promoted. The advertisement mentioned "History of England". Within hours, the BBC received thousands of angry protest calls and was forced to apologize. Who do you think the angry callers were? Why did the BBC apologize? 3 In 1991, UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) introduced a new regulation. This limited the number of foreign players who could play for a football club in European competition. For example, a German club could only have a certain number of non-German players. Under the new rules, a Liverpool player, Ian Rush, was classed as an 'foreigner' even though he was born just 20 miles from Liverpool and has lived in the same area his whole life. Many other English club players have been in the same position. Many people in England found this ridiculous. How did this happen? Do you think it was ridiculous? 1

4 England's dominance in Britain is reflected in the organization of government. There are ministers for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, but none for England. Do you think this is good for people in other British nations (they get special attention and recognition of their own identity) or bad (it gives them a sort of second-class colonial status)? 5 Are there strong national loyalties in your country (or are they better known as regional loyalties)? If so, is the relationship between the 'nations' in any way similar to that between the nations in Great Britain? If not, can you think of other countries where such loyalties exist? Are these loyalties causing problems in these countries?


• United Kingdom, an official handbook (HMSO) is published annually and produced by the Central Office of Information. It contains facts and figures about aspects of British life such as politics and law, economic and social affairs, arts and sports. • Dictionary of Britain by Adrian Room (Oxford University Press) is an alphabetical guide to prominent organisations, people, events, traditions and other aspects of British life.


2 story

History Two thousand years ago there was an Iron Age Celtic culture in the British Isles. It seems that the cells that came from Europe since the 8th century mixed with the people that were already there. We know that religious sites established well before the arrival of the Celts continued to be used well into the Celtic period. For the people of Britain today, the main significance of the prehistoric period (for which there are no written records) is its sense of mystery. This sense finds its focus more easily in the amazing monumental architecture of this period, of which there are traces all over the country. Willshire, in southwest England, has two spectacular examples: Silbury Hill, Europe's largest burial mound, and Stonehenge (c-Stonehenge). These sites hold special significance for anyone interested in the cultural and religious practices of prehistoric Britain. We know very little about these practices, but there are some organizations today (for example, the Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids - a small group of eccentric intellectuals and mystics) that base their beliefs on them.


II> Stonehenge

Stonehenge was built on Salisbury Plain, therefore, between 301)0 and 2300 BC. It is one of the most famous and mysterious archaeological sites in the world. One of its mysteries is how it was built even with the technology of the time (the stones come from Wales more than 200 miles away). Another is its purpose. It seems to be some kind of astronomical clock and we know that it was used by the Druids for ceremonies that marked the passing of the seasons. It has always held a fascination for the British imagination. and appears in several novels, such as Thomas Hardy's Tess of the D'Urbevilles. Nowadays, Stonehenge is not only interesting for tourists, but also a meeting place for certain minorities, such as hippies and "New Age travelers" (see Chapter I 3). It is now fenced in to protect it from harm.


2 story

... Hadrian's Wall Hadrian's Wall was built by the Romans in the 2nd century along the northern border of their province of Britannia (almost on the same line as the current Scottish English border) to protect their territory from attack by the Romans, Scots and Picts .

hadrian's wall

The Roman Period (43-410) The Roman province of Britannia covered most of what is now England and Wales. The Romans imposed their own way of life and culture, using the existing Celtic aristocracy to govern and encouraging this ruling class to adopt Roman clothing and the Romance (Latin) language. They only exerted influence in the southern part of Scotland without actually ruling there. It was at this time that a Celtic tribe called the Scots migrated from Ireland to Scotland, where they became allies of the Piets (another Celtic tribe) and opponents of the Romans. This division of the Celts into those who experienced direct Roman rule (the Britons of England and Wales) and those who did not (the Gaels of Ireland and Scotland) may help explain the development of two distinct branches of the language group. celtic celtic. The remarkable thing about the Romans is that, despite their long occupation of Britain, they left very little behind. They bequeathed to many other parts of Europe a legal and administrative system that forms the basis of the modern system and a language that evolved into the modern Romance language family. In Britain, none of them left. Furthermore, most of their mansions, baths and temples, their impressive network of roads and the cities they founded, including Londinium (London), were soon destroyed or decayed. Almost the only lasting reminder of their presence are place names like Chester, Lancaster and Gloucester, which contain variants of the Roman word castra (military camp).

The Germanic Incursions (410-1066) One of the reasons for the rapid demise of Roman Britain is probably that its influence was largely confined to the cities. In the countryside where most people lived, farming methods remained unchanged and the Celtic language continued to be dominant. Roman occupation was more a matter of colonial control than large-scale settlement. But, during the 5th century, several tribes moved from northwest continental Europe and settled in large numbers. Two of these tribes were the Angles and

Some important dates in British history SS BC * Roman General Julius Caesar lands in Britain with an expeditionary force, wins a battle and leaves the country. The first "date" in British popular history. * BC means “before Christ”. All other dates are AD (Latin anne Domini), which means "after the birth of Christ".


4- 3

The Romans are coming for Slay.


Queen Boudicca (or Boadicea) of the Iceni tribe leads a bloody revolt against the Roman occupation. It is deleted. There is a statue of Boadicea. made in the 19th century in front of the Houses of Parliament. It helped; to keep his memory alive.

The German

The invasion

the Saxons. These Anglo-Saxons soon had the south east of King Arthur's country under their control. In the west of the country, their advance, temporarily stopped by an army of Celtic Britons under King Arthur, provided a wonderful example of the distortions of popular history. In folklore and legendary King Arthur Co> King Arthur). However, at the end of the legend he is a great English hero and by the 6th century they and their way of life in almost him and his Knights of the Round Table prevailed throughout England and parts of southern Scotland. The Celtic Britons are considered the perfect example of being Saxon or driven westward where their culture, medieval nobility and chivalry were preserved. In the language survives the fact of southwest Scotland, Wales and Cornwall lL. he lived long before I died. The Anglo-Saxons had little regard for cities and towns. But there were times and it was a Romanized Celt trying to stop the advances, which had great repercussions in the country where they reintroduced the Anglo-Saxons - the very economic methods and the thousands of self-sufficiency established in the village that became 'the Englishman'! Places that formed the basis of English society for the next thousand years or more. The Anglo-Saxons were pagans when they arrived in Britain. Christianity spread across Britain from two different directions in the 6th and 7th centuries. It came directly from ROIn and when St. Augustine arrived in 597 and established his headquarters at Canterbury in south east England. It had already been introduced to Scotland and northern England, as well as Ireland, which had become Christian over 150 years earlier. Although Roman Christianity spread throughout the British Isles, the Celtic model persisted in Scotland and Ireland for several hundred years. It was less centrally organized and needed less of a strong monarchy to support it. This partly explains why both secular and religious power in these two countries were more locally based and less secure than elsewhere in Britain during the Middle Ages. Britain experienced another wave of Germanic invasions in the 8th century. These invaders, known as Vikings, Norsemen or King Arthur, Queen Guinevere and one of the Danes, came from Scandinavia. In the 9th century they conquered the Knights of the Round Table and settled in the far north and west of Scotland and the coastal regions of Ireland. The conquest of England was stopped when they were defeated by King Alfred of the Saxon King of Wessex (King Alfred). This led to an agreement dividing England between Wessex to the south and west and the 'Danelaw' to the north and east.

,p o The Romans leave Britain. 4 31

Mr. Patrick converts Ireland to Christianity.

S97 Saint Augustine arrives in England. 793 The great monastery on the island of Llndisfarne in northeast England is destroyed by the Vikings and their monks slain.

87 8 The Peace of Edington divided England between the Saxons, led by King Alfred, and the Danes. 9 73 Edgar, grandson of Alfred, becomes king of all England.


2 story

18 ~

King Alfred

King Alfred was not only an able ruler, but also a dedicated scholar and wise ruler. He is known as "Alfred the Great" - the only monarch in English history to be given that title. He is also popularly known for the story of the Durning of the Cakes. While Alfred roamed his lands organizing resistance against invading Vikings, he traveled in disguise. Once he stopped at a woman's house. The woman asked him to watch some cakes being baked to make sure they didn't burn while she went to get some food. Alfred was lost in thought and the cakes burned. When the woman returned, she angrily yelled at Alfred and sent him away. Alfred never told her he was her king. ~

1066 This is the most famous date in English history. On October 14, 1066, an invading army from Normandy defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings. The fighting was close and extremely bloody. In the end, most of England's best warriors were dead, including their leader, King Harold. On Christmas Day of that year, the Norman leader, Duke William of Normandy, was crowned King of England. In popular history, he is known as "William the Conqueror". The date will be remembered as the last time England was successfully attacked.

10 14 Brian Boru's Irish army defeats the Vikings at Clontarf (near modern Dublin). As a result, Ireland's Viking settlement remains limited and Ireland retains its Celtic identity and never becomes part of the Scandinavian Empire.

However, cultural differences between Anglo-Saxons and Danes were comparatively small. They lived virtually the same way of life and spoke two variants of the same Germanic language (which together formed the basis of modern English). By the way, the Danes then 1066)

King William's officials complete the Domesday Book, a very detailed village-by-village record of people and their possessions throughout the kingdom.

the average age

it was under his direct rule (it was at this time that the custom of naming the eldest son of the monarch "Prince of Wales" began). Scotland managed to remain politically independent in the Middle Ages. but was forced to fight occasional wars to do so. The cultural history of this period is different. Two hundred and fifty years after the Norman conquest, it was a Germanic language (Middle English) rather than the Norman language (French) that became the dominant language in all walks of life in England. Besides that . it was the Anglo-Saxon concept of common law and not Roman law. that formed the basis of the legal system. Despite the English dominance. North and mid Wales were never settled in large numbers by Saxons or Norsemen. As a result, the Welsh (Cehish) language and culture has remained strong. eisteddfods. national festivals of Welsh music and poetry. continued through the Middle Ages and still occurs today. The Anglo-Norman lords of Eastern Ireland remained loyal to the English king, but despite conflicting laws. mainly adopted the Gaelic language and customs. The political independence of the Scottish country did not prevent a gradual conversion to the English language and customs in the lower (southern) part of the country. First, the Anglo-Saxon element was strengthened here by the arrival of many Saxon aristocrats fleeing the Norman conquest of England. Second. Celtic kings realized that adopting an Anglo-Norman style of government would strengthen royal power. At the end of this period, a cultural divide developed between the lowlands, where the way of life and language were similar to those in England, and the highlands, where Gaelic (Celtic) culture and language predominated - and where, because of the mountains landscape, it was difficult to enforce the king's authority. During this period, Parliament began its gradual development into the democratic body it is today. The word 'parliament', derived from the French word parler (to speak), was first used in 13th-century England to describe an assembly of nobles convened by the king. In I 29 5, the model parliament set the course for the future, including elected representatives from urban and rural areas.

II- language and class

The existence of two words for larger cattle in modern English is a result of the class division introduced by the Norman Conquest. There are the words for live animals (for example, (0\\'. pig. sheep) . which originate in Anglo-Saxon. origins in the French language that the Normans brought to England Only the Normans normally ate meat, the poor Anglo-Saxon peasants not Robin Hood

Robin Hood is a legendary folk hero. King Richard I (I 189-99) spent most of his reign fighting in the Crusades (the wars between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East). While Richard was away. England was ruled by his brother John. which was unpopular because of all the taxes it levied. According to the caption. Robin Hood lived with his gang of 'merry men' in Sherwood Forest on the outskirts of Nottingham. steal from the rich and give to the poor. He was constantly hunted by the local sheriff (the royal representative) but was never caught.


117 0

117 1


The murder of Thomas Becket. the Archbishop of Camerbury. of soldiers of King Henry yl l. Becket (also known as Thom as aBecket) was canonized and his tomb was visited by pilgrims for hundreds of years. The Canterbury Tales. written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the fourteenth century. tells the stories of a fictional group of pilgrims on their way to Canterbury.

The Norman baron known as Strongbow and his followers settle in Ireland.

An alliance of the artistic ocracy. The Church and merchants force King John to agree to the Magna Carta (Great Charter). a document in which the king agrees to follow certain rules of government. In reality. neither John nor his followers fully followed them. but Magna Carta is the first time a monarch has committed to complying with formal procedures.



2 hours of history

.. The Wars of the Roses During the 15th century, the throne of England was claimed by representatives of two rival factions. The rulers of the greatest nobles, who had their own private armies, meant that the monarch's position could be constantly challenged. The Lancastrians. whose symbol was a red rose, supported the descendants of the Duke of Lancaster and the Yorkists. whose symbol was a white rose, supported the descendants of the Duke of York. The power struggle led to the Wars of the Roses between 1455 and 1485. They ended when Henry VII Richard III. defeated and killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field, and an era of stability and strong government followed. We come from those weakened and impoverished by decades of war.

.. Cut off the head! Being an important person in the 16th century was not a secure position. Tudor monarchs were disloyal and ruthless to their officials (any nobles who opposed them). More than half of Die Zeit's most famous people ended their lives by being executed as traitors. Few people brought through Traitor's Gate (Q) and becoming prisoners in the Tower of London made it out alive.

The 16th century The power of the English monarch increased during this period. The strength of the great barons had been severely weakened by the Wars of the Roses (r-Wars of the Roses). The bubonic plague (known as the Black Death in England) contributed to the reduced performance of the IR. It first erupted in England in the mid-14th century, killing about a third of the population and periodically reappearing for another 300 years. The resulting shortage of labor and the growing importance of trade in the cities helped to weaken the traditional link between feudal lords and peasants. The Tudor dynasty (1185-1603) established a system of government departments with professionals whose position depended on the monarch. As a result, feudal barons were no longer needed to implement government policies. The ys were also less needed to shape government policy. Parliament was traditionally divided into two "houses". The House of Lords consisted of the feudal lordship and church leaders; the House of Commons consisted of representatives of the towns and small landowners in the countryside. It was now more important for monarchs to gain the approval of the House of Commons for policy-making, as this was where the newly powerful merchants and landowners (the people with money) were represented. Unlike much of the rest of Europe, the direct reason for the rise of Protestantism in England was political and personal rather than doctrinal ("Henry VII I"). Henry VIII wanted a divorce, which the pope would not grant, handing himself over to the head of the Church of England, independent of Rome, all Church lands came under his control, giving him a great new source of income with a new spirit of patriotic self-confidence in England, which ended up losing any realistic claims to land in France. and prospered more consciously for an independent "island state". At the same time, Europe's increasing exploitation of America and other parts of the world meant that

US J. 7 5"

13 2 8


Llew Ellyn, a Welsh prince. refuses to submit to the authority of the English monarch.

After several years of war between the Scottish and English kingdoms. Scotland is recognized as an independent kingdom.

The Act of Supremacy proclaimed Henry VIII the supreme head of the Church in England.

12 84-

15"3 6

The Statute of Wales places the entire country under the control of the English monarch.

The administration of government and law in Wales is being reformed to be exactly like that in England.

the sixteenth century

England was closer to the geographic center of Western civilization than ever before. on the threshold of going. It was in the last quarter of the adventurous and optimistic century that Shakespeare began to write his famous plays. It was religious patriotism and religious belief that led to Protestantism becoming the majority religion in England at the end of the century. It took a form known as Anglicanism. which did not differ so much from Catholicism in organization and ritual. But in the lowlands of Scotland it took on a more idealistic form. Calvinism, with its strict insistence on simplicity and aversion to rites and celebrations, became the dominant religion. From that date, the stereotype of the grumpy and thrifty Scotsman developed. However. the Scottish Highlands remained Catholic, further widening the gulf between the two parts of the nation. Ireland also remained Catholic. There, Protestantism identified with the English. who then made further attempts to control the entire country.


Elisabeth I


Henry V l1i Henry VIII is one of the most famous monarchs in the history of England, mainly because he married six throughout his life. During his reign the Reformation took place. In the 1530s, Henry used Parliament to pass laws that swept away the power of the Roman Church in England. His quarrel with Rome was nothing (this is because he wanted the freedom to remarry and appoint whoever he wanted as leader of the Church in England). he had enacted a law demanding the full observance of the Catholic faith and practice, and had already written a polemic against Protestantism, which the Pope gave the title Fidei Defensor (Defender of the Faith). FD still appears on British coins today.

Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII (t>Henry VIII), was the first of three long-reigning queens in British history (the other two being Queen Victoria and Elizabeth II). During her long reign, through skilful diplomacy, she created a reasonable degree of internal stability in a strictly Protestant England, which allowed a patriotic spirit and general confidence to grow. She never married, but used the opportunity as a diplomatic tool. She became known as "the virgin queen". The area that later became the state of Virginia in the United States was named after her by one of the many English explorers of the time (Sir Walter Raleigh).

Eliza beth me

Henry VII

153 8

i S80

160 3

An English version of the Bible replaces the Latin Bibles in all churches across the country.

Sir Francis Drake completes the first circumnavigation of the world by an Englishman.

James VI of Scotland with James I of England.


i s8 8

The Scottish Parliament revokes the Pope's authority and bans Mass in Latin.

The Spanish Armada, fleet of ships dispatched by the Catholic King Philip of Spain (helps invade England, is defeated by the British Navy (aided by a violent storm)).

The Gunpowder Plot: A group of Catholics fails in their attempt to blow up the King in Parliament (see Chapter 23).




2 story

.. The Civil War This is popularly known as a battle between fun lovers. aristocratic and royalist "gentlemen" who, however, were "wrong" in their hereditary beliefs and overly serious and puritanical

Rouudhcads' parliamentarians (by the nature of their haircuts) who, however, were on their side. The Roundheads were victorious in 1645, although the war lasted until [649.

1641. The Civil War (and> The Civil War) begins.

The 17th century When James I became the first English king of the Stuart dynasty, he was already King of Scotland, so the crowns of these two countries were united. Although their parliaments and administrative and judicial systems remained separate, their linguistic differences were reduced in this century. Spoken in the Scottish lowlands, Middle English evolved into a written language known as "Scottish". However, the Scottish Protestant Church adopted English rather than Scottish Bibles. This, and the splendor of the English court where the king now sat, meant that modern English also became the written standard in Scotland. In the sixteenth century, religion and politics became inextricably linked. This connection became even more intense in the 17th century. At the beginning of the century, some people tried to kill the king because he was not Catholic enough (see chapter 23). At the end of the century, another king was killed, in part because he seemed too Catholic, and another was forced into exile for the same reason. This was the context in which Parliament established its supremacy over the monarchy in Great Britain throughout the century. Anger was growing in the country at the way the Stuart monarchs were raising money, particularly as they had not gained prior approval from the House of Commons to do so. This went against the old tradition. Furthermore, ideological Protestantism, especially Puritanism, had grown in England. Puritans considered many practices of the Anglican Church, including its hierarchical structure, immoral. Some of them also considered the luxurious lifestyle of the king and his retainers immoral. They were also decidedly anti-Catholic and distrustful of the Stuart monarchs' apparent sympathy for Catholicism. This conflict led to the Civil War (c- The Civil War), which ended in a complete victory for the parliamentary forces. The king (Charles I) was captured and became the first monarch in Europe to be executed after a formal trial for crimes against his people. The leader of the Parliamentary Army, Oliver Cromwell, became the 'Lord Protector' of a republic with a military government which, after brutally crushing resistance in Ireland, effectively surrendered resistance in the British Isles. But when Cromwell died, he, his system of government and the puritanical ethics that went with it (theater and other forms of entertainment were banned) became so unpopular that the son of the executed king was asked to repent and take office. throne. Anglican 16 4 9 Charles I is executed. For the first and only time, Great Britain briefly becomes a republic and is called the Commonwealth.

16 6 0

The Anglican monarchy and religion are restored.

the seventeenth century

A 19th-century painting depicting victorious Roundheads and two prisoners

Cavaliers after the Boule de Naseby in 1645

Church has been restored. However, conflict between the monarch and parliament soon resurfaced. King Jaime II tried to give Catholics full rights and promote them in his government. What followed was the Glorious Revolution ('glorious' because there was no bloodshed), in which Prince William of Orange, ruler of the Netherlands, and his Stuart wife, Mary, accepted Parliament's invitation to become king and queen . Thus it was established that a monarch could only govern with the support of Parliament. Parliament... Ring-a-ring-a-roses immediately drafted a Bill of Rights that restricted some of the Ring-a-ring-a-rost monarch's powers (notably the power to dismiss judges). It's A bag full of bouquets Atisho!Anshoo! it also allowed dissenters (those who disagreed with the practices of Anglicanism) to freely practice their religion. This meant that this is a well known Presbyterian nursery church, which most of today's Scottish nursery rhymes refer to. It comes from goods whose legality has been guaranteed. However, the dissenters were not the time of the Great Plague of 166t; . they may hold government positions or be members of parliament. which was the last eruption of James II, however escaped to Ireland. But the Catholic Irish bubonic plague in Britain. The circular army he assembled there was defeated. Laws we passed prohibiting Redding-related roses from voting Catholic or even owning land. In Ulster, north of the spots on a sufferer's body. The country's bouquets (bags of herbs) were believed to protect large numbers of fiercely anti-Catholic Scottish Presbyterians from disease. village (owner of the whole country). The descendants of these people, representing 'Aushoo', are still known as the Orangemen today (named after their patron, William Niesen, one of the characters in Orange). They form one half of the tragic divide in society in modern illness. Accordingly, a person from Northern Ireland, whose other half is 'native' Irish Catholics, could 'drop' dead, sometimes within hours. (see chapter 13).



16 9 0

The Great Fire of London destroyed most of the city's old wooden buildings. It also erases the bubonic plague, which never returns. Most of the most beautiful churches in the city. including St. Paul's Cathedral, date from the reconstruction period that follows.

The Glorious Revolution

The Presbyterian Church becomes the official "Church of Scotland". The Battle of the Boyne in which William JII and Ulster Protestants defeat James II and Irish Catholics.





The 18th century Politically, this century was stable. Monarch and Parliament got along very well. One reason for this was that, through royal patronage power (the ability to give people jobs), the monarch's favorite politicians were able to control the election and voting behavior of large numbers of Members of Parliament (MPs) in the House. of the Commons. . Within Parliament, the divisions of the last century, though far less bitter than before, were echoed in the formation of two loosely opposed coalitions of allies. One group, the Whigs, were the political "descendants" of the MPs. They supported Protestant values ​​of hard work and thrift, we sympathized with dissenters and believed in rule by monarch and nobility together. The other group, the Conservatives, had more respect for the idea of ​​monarchy and the importance of the Anglican Church (and sometimes even a little sympathy for Catholics and Stuarts). The two terms Whig and Tory were in fact first used in the late 1670s, and affiliation with one side or the other was often the result of family or regional loyalty rather than political beliefs. However, this could be considered the beginning of the party system in Britain (see Chapter 6). The modern system of an annual budget drawn up by the monarch's treasury officials for approval by Parliament was introduced in this century. It was also the monarch's custom to appoint a rector or 'prime', a minister from within the ranks of Parliament, to head his government. At the beginning of the century, the Scottish Parliament joined the English and Welsh Parliaments in Westminster, London, by agreement. However, Scotland retained its own legal system, which was more similar to the continental European system than that of England. Within today. The only part of Britain that has changed radically this century as a result of political forces is the Scottish Highlands. Twice this area supported failed attempts to forcibly restore a Stuart (Catholic) monarch to the throne. After the second attempt, many join the Scottish and England and Wales parliaments. 1]08

The last occasion on which a British monarch refuses to accept a law passed by Parliament.

1] 4 6


At Culloden Bank, a government of lowland Englishmen and Scots defeats the highland arm of Charles Edward, who. as grandson of the last Stuart king. claimed the British throne. Although he made no attempt to protect his supporters from further revenge, he is still a popular romantic figure in the Highlands and is known as "Bnnie Prince Charlie".

For the first time . Parliament allows free publication of written records of its debates. 17 8 2 James Watt invents the first steam engine. 1] 83

After a war, Great Britain recognizes the independence of the American colonies.

the eighteenth century

Highlanders were killed or expelled from Britain, and the wearing of Highland clothing (the tartan kilt) was banned. The Celtic way of life was effectively destroyed. It was the cultural shift that was most pronounced in this century. Great Britain gradually expanded its empire in America. along the coast of West Africa and into India. The increase in trade resulting from association with new markets was one of the factors that led to the Industrial Revolution. The many technical innovations in the areas of production and transportation at this time also contributed to this. In England. the growth of industrial production. along with advances in agriculture. caused the greatest upheaval in everyday life since the Anglo-Saxon invasions. common areas. available to anyone in a village for grazing animals since Anglo-Saxon times disappeared as landowners incorporated them into their increasingly larger and more efficient farms. (Some parts of common land survive to this day in Britain and are mainly used as public parks. They are often referred to as "commons".) Hundreds of thousands of people moved from rural areas to new towns and cities. Most of these new towns were in the north of England. where raw materials for industry were available. In this way, the North, previously economically backward in relation to the South, became the industrial heart of the country. The right conditions for industrialization also existed in the Lowlands, Scotland and South Wales, emphasizing the differences between these parts of these countries and their non-industrialized areas. In the south of England, London dominated, not as an industrial center, but as a center of business and commerce. Until the end of the century. it had a population of nearly a million. Despite all the urban development, social power and prestige resided in land ownership in the country. An outward sign of this prestige was the ownership of a country estate - a graceful country estate with an adjoining plot of land. Over a thousand of these mansions were built in the 18th century.

17 8 8

18 0s

182 9

The first British sentlers (convicts and soldiers) arrive in Australia.

A British fleet under Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats Napoleon's French fleet at the Banle de Trafalgar. Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, London commemorates this national hero, who died during the battle,

Robert Peel. a government minister. organized the first modern police force. Even today, the police are sometimes referred to as "bobbies". {Bobby' is a shortened form of the name 'Robert'} Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants have the right to hold government office and become MPs.

180 0

The separate Irish parliament is closed and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.


26 2 story

The 19th century Just before the beginning of this century, Great Britain had lost its main American colonies in a war of independence. At the beginning of the century, the country was at war with France, in which an invasion by the French army was quite possible. Shortly after the end of the century, Britain controlled the greatest empire the world had ever known (see Chapter J 2). Part of that empire was Ireland. In that century it was actually part of the United Kingdom itself, and in that century the British culture and way of life became dominant in Ireland. In 18 4 0 5 the potato harvest failed for two consecutive years and there was a terrible famine. Millions of Irish Gaelic-speaking peasants and customs died or emigrated. By the end of the century, almost all of the remaining population was using English as a first language. Another part of the empire consisted of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, where settlers from the British Isles formed the majority of the population. These countries enjoyed full internal self-government but recognized the overall authority of the British government. Another was India, a vast country with a culture older than Britain. Tens of thousands of British officers and men were mobilized to govern it. At the head of this administration was a viceroy (governor) whose position in the country was similar to that of the monarch in Great Britain itself. With India so far away and the journey from Britain so long, these British officials spent most of their working lives there, developing a distinctly Anglo-Indian way of life. They imposed British institutions and methods of government on the country and returned to Britain after retirement. Large parts of Africa also belonged to the empire. With the exception of South Africa, where there were some British settlements, most of Britain's African colonies began as coastal trading posts, and we were not incorporated into the Empire until late in the century. In addition to these territories (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and Africa), the empire included numerous smaller territories and islands.

18 31 The first law regulating working conditions in factories is approved. (It placed a limit on the hours children could work.) Slavery is illegal throughout the British Empire.

18 68

188 6

The TLC (Trades Union Congress) is formed.

After much discussion. An atheist can sit in the House of Commons.

18 7 0

18 9 3

Free primary education (up to 11 years old) is introduced.

The first socialist. Ker Hardy. is elected to Parliament. He enters the House of Commons for the first time wearing a cloth cap (which remained a symbol of the British working class until the 1960s).

The 19th century.... Queen Victoria Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901. Although her reign confirmed the monarch's modern impotence (she was often forced to accept as prime ministers those she personally disliked), she became an increasingly popular symbol. of Britain's success in the world. Like hard work. religious mother of nine children, devoted to her husband. Prince Alben, she was considered the embodiment of contemporary morality. The idea that the monarch should set an example to the people in such matters was unknown before that time and caused problems for the monarchy in the 20th century (see Chapter 7).

Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their nine children, photographed in 1857 Some, like those in the Caribbean, were the result of earlier British settlers, but most were acquired because of their strategic position along the trade route Great Britain's changing attitude Britain in relation to colonization over the course of the 19th century The 10th century gave new impetus to empire builders

trade or military strategy. The objective was merely to own the territory, not necessarily to enter it. By the end of the century, colonization was seen as a matter of fate. Over the course of the century there was a huge increase in prosperity. so that Great Britain became the greatest economic power in the world. This, combined with a long history of political stability unmatched anywhere else in Europe, gave the British a sense of supreme confidence, even arrogance, in their culture and civilization and their duty to protect that culture and civilization around the world for spread. Being 19th 2 Selective secondary education will be introduced at national level. 19°8 The first old-age pensions are introduced.

191 eu

19 16

The power of the House of Lords is severely limited. Sick pay is introduced for most employees.

The "Easter Rising" in Ireland against British rule is suppressed. Your leaders will be executed.

1 91 4-

The right to vote is extended to women aged 18 and over.

19 18 Great Britain declares war on Germany. Up to 19+OS. World War I was known in Britain as "the Great War".

19 20 The British government divides Ireland.



2 History... The White Man's Burden en Here are a few lines from the poem of the same title by Rudyard Kipling (1865~1936), sometimes referred to as the 'poet of imperialism'. Take up the white man's burden, send the best Yebreed. Go tie up your kids! To wait in heavy harness For people fluttering and wild You newly captured, ill-tempered folk half demon and half child. Other races, the poem says, are "wild" and "in need" of civilization. The noble duty of the white man is to "serve" in that role. This is not a quest for mere power. Duty is bestowed by God, whom Kipling invokes in another poem (Recessional) in reference to the British Empire in tropical lands; God of our fathers, old acquaintance, Lord of our vast lineage of bottles, under whose terrible hand we hold Dominion, ever palms and pines -

19 2 1 Treaty between Great Britain and the Irish Parliament in Dublin is signed. 19 22 The Irish Free State is born. 19 26

the ruler of an empire was therefore a matter of moral obligation. In fact, it was known as "The White Man's Burden". There were great changes in the social structure. Most people now lived in cities and towns. They no longer depended on the landlords of the countryside for their subsistence, but on the owners of industries. These factory owners, along with the new and growing artisan middle class, held the real power in the country. In establishing their power, they established a set of values ​​that emphasized hard work, thrift, religious observance, family life, a sense of duty, absolute honesty in public life, and extreme seriousness in sexual matters. This is the set of values ​​we now call Victorian. Middle-class religious beliefs, together with a conscious belief that reform was better than revolution, made reforms possible in political and public life. Great Britain gradually turned into something resembling a modern state. There were not only political reforms, but also reforms that recognized some human rights (as we call them today). We abolish slavery and laws against people based on religion, and we legislate to protect workers from some of the worst forms of exploitation that result from industrial production. Public services like the police were created. Despite the reforms, the nature of the new industrial society forced many people to live and work in very uncomfortable conditions. Writers and intellectuals of the time protested the horrors of this new way of life (as did Dickens) or simply ignored it. Many, especially the Romantic poets, extolled the beauties of the land and the simplicity of country life. This was a new development. In previous centuries, the land was just there, and there was nothing to discuss or admire. But from that point on, most Britons developed a sentimental attachment to the idea of ​​rural life (see Chapter 5). 19 39 Great Britain declares war on Germany. 19 44

19 5'3

Free compulsory secondary education (up to age 15) is introduced and secondary schools are created (see chapter [4]).

Coronation of Elizabeth II

General strike 19 2 8 The 10 hit vote is extended again. From now on, all men and women over the age of 21 can vote.

19 4 9

Ireland becomes a republic.

194 6 The National Health Service is created (see Chapter 18) . Coal mines and railways are nationalized. Other sectors will follow (see Chapter [ 5).

19 5"8 The Clean Air Act is the first widely enacted law to combat environmental pollution (see Chapter 3). 19 5"9 The first freeway opens (see Chapter [ 7) .

the twentieth century

The Twentieth Century At the start of this century, Britain was no longer the richest country in the world. Perhaps this served to undermine Victorian confidence in incremental reform. Whatever the reason, the first twenty years of the century were a time of extremism in Britain. The right to vote ttes.

Women who demanded the right to vote were willing to damage property and die for their faith; The Ulster Trouble in Northern Ireland created a situation in which parts of the Army suffered

he seemed ready to disobey the government; and the government's refusal to introduce new types and levels of taxation

absolutely from the House of Lords, which even Parliament, the bedrock of the political system, sees as uncertain in its future

traditional way. But by the end of the First World War, two of these problems had been resolved to most people's satisfaction (the Irish problem remained) and the mood of un-British extremism subsided. Major changes in the 20th century

are discussed elsewhere in this book. Only one thing should not be mentioned here. It wasn't until the beginning of this century that the urban working class (the majority of the population) finally began to make their voices heard. In Parliament, Labor gradually replaced the Liberals (the 'descendants' of the Whigs) as the main opposition to the Conservatives (the 'descendants' of the Tories). In addition, unions managed to organize themselves. By 1926 they were powerful enough to hold a general strike, and from the 1930s through the 1980s the Congress of Trade Unions (see Chapter 14) was probably the most powerful political force outside the institution of government and parliament.

19 63

197 1

19 84

High school diploma is high

The decimal currency is entered (see



Privatization of Bunush Telecom. This is the first time that shares in a nationalized company have been sold directly to the public (see Chapter I)).

1 1)) .

19 68


“Majority” (the age at which someone legally reaches the age of majority) is reduced from twenty-one to eighteen.

Great Britain joins the European Economic Community.


Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer.

1990 Gulf War (see Chapter 12)

19 8 1

British troops are sent to Northern Ireland. The death penalty is abolished.

19 8 2 Malvinas War (see Chapter 12)

1994 Inauguration of the Channel Tunnel.



2 story


1066 And All That is the title of a well-known joke history book published before the Second World War, satirizing the history taught in British schools at the time. This usually means there is a lot of data to remember. Why do you think the authors chose this title? 2 19 8 6 the BBC released a computer video package with detailed information about every location in Great Britain. It took a long time to prepare this package, but the decision to release it in 1986 (and not, for example, 19850r 19 8 7) was a conscious decision. What's important about the data? 3 Which of the famous names from British folk history could be described as “resistance fighters”? I

4 Around the year 1500, around 5 million people used the English language - less than the population of Great Britain at that time. Today, it is estimated that at least 600 million people use English regularly in their daily lives - at least 10 times the population of Great Britain today. Why has the use of English expanded so much over the past 50 years? 5 How would you describe the changing relationship between religion and politics in British history? Are the changes that have taken place similar to those in your country? 6 Britain is unusual among European countries in that there has not been a single revolution or civil war for over 300 years. What reasons do you find in this chapter that might help explain stability?


• "Understanding Britain" by John Randle (Basil Blackwell, Ox Ford) is a highly readable history of Britain, written with the learner in mind. • TheStory of English is a series of nine BBC programs available on video. Episodes 2-4 are largely historical and very interesting. • There is a strong tradition of historical novels in English (set at different times in British history). The writings of George te Heyer, Norah Lofts, Jean Plaidy, Rosemary Sutcliffe, and Henry and Geoffrey Treece are good examples.


3 geography

It has been argued that Britain's willingness to compromise is a result of the country's physical geography. This may not be true, but it is certainly true that Britain's land and climate have a notable lack of extremes. Britain has mountains, but none of them are very high; it also has flat terrain, but you can't go very far without encountering hills; it doesn't have very big rivers; it's usually not too cold in winter and not too hot in summer; There are no active volcanoes and an earthquake is being reported in the national media, shaking no more than teacups in some homes.


4 ~ W


tf. 0"

1$lan~s ~ .

the british countryside




Norden, EA



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Land elevation in meters above sea level l More than 500

200 - 500

More than 200

• 8"


© Ox(f1Td University Press


3 geography

Climate Britain's climate is more or less the same as that of the northwest part of mainland Europe. The popular belief that it rains all the time in the UK is simply not true. The image of a wet, misty land was created by the Roman invaders two thousand years ago and perpetuated in modern times by Hollywood. In fact, London doesn't rain more in a year than most other major European cities and less than a few (I> How Wet Is Brittcin/). The amount of rain that falls on a lawn in the UK depends on where it falls. Generally speaking, the further west you go, the more

You get rain. The mild winters ensure that there is regular snow only at the highest elevations. Occasionally. an entire winter passes in low areas without snow. In general, winters in the east of the country are slightly cooler than in the west, while the south is slightly warmer and sunnier than the north in summer. Why does Britain's climate have such a bad reputation? Perhaps it's for the same reason that the British seem to always talk about clothes. This is your mutability. There's a saying that Britain doesn't have weather, it only has weather. It may not rain much overall. But you can never count on a dry day, there can be cool (even cold) days in July and some very hot days in January. unprepared for it A little snow and a few days of frost and the trains break down and the roads are closed when the thermometer goes over 80°F (27°C) [How hot or cold is Britain') . people act like they're in the Sahara and the temperature makes the front pages. These things happen so rarely that it's not worth preparing your life for them. .... How wet is Britain? Total (approximate) annual precipitation in some Western European cities IOoo mm 900 mm 800 mm 700 mm 600 mm SOO mm 400 mm


---- -- -- - --........ ........... ------- --- --- --- -- -- ---- -- -- -- -- - - -..





........ .........







200 mm


















100mm mm


6 Political Life

The Matching System The Matching System is an excellent example of the habit of working together among politicians in Britain. In this system, a PM from one company is “paired” with a PM from another party. When a vote is about to take place in the House of Commons and both MPs know they wouldn't vote for either side, neither of them bothers to show up to vote. In this way, the numerical difference between one side and the other is maintained, while deputies are free to attend to other tasks. The system works very well. There is almost no such thing as "fraud".

The prime minister's powers are, although he or she is probably the most powerful person in the country. Likewise, there is not a single written document affirming human rights. Some universally recognized rights in modern democracies (for example, the right not to be discriminated against on the basis of sex or race) have been formally recognized by Parliament through legislation; but others (eg the right not to be discriminated against on the basis of religion or political opinion) are not. It is understood, however, that these last rights are also part of the Constitution.

The Style of Politics Despite recent changes, such as the television broadcast of Parliament, political life in Britain is still influenced by the traditional British respect for privacy and love of secrecy. It is also comparatively informal. In both parliament and government, there is a tendency to take important decisions not in official public meetings, or even pre-arranged private meetings, but over lunch, drinks or in casual encounters in the halls of power. The House of Commons used to be considered "London's most exclusive club". And indeed, there are many features of Parliament that make its members (MPs) feel special and have a special sense of belonging to each other, even among those radically opposed to political philosophies. First, constitutional theory holds that Parliament has absolute control over its own affairs and is in fact the supreme power in the country. Second, there are the ancient procedural traditions (see Chapter 9). Many of them serve to remind MPs of a time when the main divide in politics was not between this party and that party, but rather between Parliament itself and the monarch. Even the architecture of the Palace of Westminster (seat of the two Houses of Parliament) contributes to this feeling. It's so confusing that only "insiders" can navigate it. These features, along with long-term political stability, have created a true habit of cooperation between politicians from different parties. When you hear politicians arguing in the House of Commons or in a TV studio, you might think they hate each other. This is rarely the case. They are often good friends. And even when this is the case, both often see the practical benefit of working together. The benefit is that very little time is wasted arguing about how political affairs should be fairly conducted. For example, Parliament's agenda is set in advance by party representatives to allow sufficient time for different points of view to be expressed. Another example is television advertising. Under the agreement, political parties cannot buy television time. Instead, each part is given a strict amount of time, with the two largest parts given exactly the same amount of time. A very obvious example is the MP "mating" system (I> The Mating System).

The policy style

A Guide to British Political Parties Conservative Party

workers' party

Liberal Democratic Party



liberal democrats

CONSERVATIVE • History: Originated from the group of MPs known as the Tories in the early 19th century (see Chapter 2) and is still often referred to informally by that name (particularly in recent times because it takes up little space). • Truduioncl view: right of center; stands for hierarchical authority and minimal state intervention in economy: likes to cut income (ax; places high priority on national defense and internal order. • Since 1979: aggressive education reform, public housing, and many public services aimed at increasing consumer choice and introduce 'market economics' into its operations • Organization: leader has relatively large degrees of freedom to direct policy • Leader (May 2002): Lain Duncan Smith • Voter: wealthier sections of society plus a large minority of '... working classes • Money: mainly donations from businessmen.

• History: it emerged from an alliance of trade unionists and intellectuals in the early 20th century. First government 1923. • Traditional perspective: center-left; stands for equal rights, for the weakest people in society and for greater state involvement in the economy; more concerned with providing comprehensive social benefits than with keeping income taxes low. • Since 1979: opposition to conservative reforms, although many have already been accepted; recently. Emphasis on community ethics and more flexible association with unions (Section "IS") • Organization: In theory, policies must be approved by annual conferences, in practice the leader has more power than this implies • Leader (May zoozl Tony Blair • Voters: working class plus a small middle class of intellectuals • Money: more than half comes from trade unions.

• History: Formed in the late 1980s from a union of Liberals (which evolved from the Whigs of the early 19th century) and Social Democrats (a split from Labor politicians). • Guidelines: considered center or slightly left of center; has always been strong for the EU; values ​​the environment more than other panics; believes in empowering local government 10 and reforming the electoral system (see Chapter 10). • Leader (May 2002): Charles Kenn ed y.

• Voters: from all walks of life, but more from the middle class. • Cash: private donations (much poorer than the big two).

nationalist parties

parties in Nordirland

other parts

Both the Plaid Cyrn ru ('Party of Wales' in the Welsh language) and the SNP (Scottish National Party) fight for the decentralization of government. Many of its members, particularly in the SNP, are willing to consider full independence from the UK. Both parties have normally had a few MPs in Westminster over the last fifty years, but we will have less than half the total number of MPs from their respective countries.

The parties here generally represent the Protestant or Catholic community (see Chapter 4): on each side there is a large and comparatively moderate party (Ulster Unionist Protestants and the Social Democratic and Catholic Labor Party) and one or more other parties with different views. more extreme groups on each side (for example, the Protestant Democrat unionists and the Catholic Sinn Fein). There is a party calling for support from both communities - the Alliance Party. In 2002, she had not won any seats.

There are numerous very small parties like the Greens. supported by environmentalists. There is a small party that used to be the Communist Party. and several other left-wing parties, and also an extreme right-wing party that is openly racist (by most Thai definitions). It was formerly called the National Front, but has been called the British National Party (BNP) since the 1980s. At the time of writing, none of these parties had won a single seat in Parliament in the second half of the 20th century. 1993. however. the BNP briefly won a seat on the city council.



6 Political life .... Image counts In the age of television. The important thing: “The personal image of a party leader and his political success have increased a lot. Since 1960 one

Major changes have taken place regarding the families of politicians. In advance. The British public did not even know the name of the Prime Minister's wife. Today, the wives of men's squad leaders are well known in the media and their children are often photographed with them to show what they love. they are normal parents. The UK scene has none at the time of writing. reached the level of absurdity it has in the US, where , [or example. The daughter of Jimmy Carter (president 197 5-7 9) was such a celebrity that the press once thought it important to point out that she was twelve minutes late for school!

Tony Blair with his wife and three older children outside 10 Donning Street, the Prime Minister's official residence

The party system in Great Britain is often referred to as the “two-party system”. Because since 1945 one of the two biggest parties has had its own party. controls the government and members of both parties have held over 90% of all seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Furthermore, this is not a particularly modern phenomenon, basically the same situation existed throughout the 19th century, except that the Liberals were one of the two main parties, rather than Labour. The Labor Party was formed in the early part of the 20th century and within about thirty years replaced the Liberals in this role. One reason this situation exists is because of the electoral system (see Chapter 10). The other is the origin of British political parties. Britain differs from most other countries in that its parties were first established in Parliament and only later expanded to the general public. During the 18th century, MPs tended to split into two camps, those who normally supported the government of the day and those who normally did not. During the 19th century, it became increasingly common for the party that did not control the government to present itself as the alternative government. This idea of ​​an alternative government received legal recognition. The leader of the second largest party in the House of Commons (more specifically, the largest non-governmental party) is given the title 'Her Majesty's Leader of the Opposition'. and still earns a salary to prove the importance of this function. He or she chooses a "shadow chamber" that represents the image of a team ready to fill the government steps in an instant. As a result of these origins, no party existed solely to look after the interests of a particular group (although some groups in society were naturally more attracted to one of the two parties than the other). they were distinguished by certain important differences in their views on life, not to uphold a single, coherent political philosophy. The main reason for its existence was to gain power through the formation of effective coalitions of interest groups and individuals. Although the Labor Party was formed outside Parliament and, as its name suggests, existed to represent the interests of a particular group (the working class), it soon fitted into the established structure. It is very difficult for smaller parties to challenge the dominance of the larger ones. If one of them seems to have some good ideas, those ideas are more likely to be adopted by one of the three major parties, all of which are trying to appeal to the widest possible segment of the population. The fact that the party system emerged alongside parliament has other implications. Unlike in many other countries, parties do not extend to all areas of public and social life in the country. Universities, for example, have their Conservative, Labor and

the modern situation

liberal democratic associations, but when it comes to the election of Studentenwerk officials, national parties are generally not the norm. The same applies to elections within unions (see Chapter 15). Another consequence is that it is usually the deputies of a party who have the most control over the party's policy and the most influence on the election of the party leader. This does not mean that parties are undemocratic. Its members, who are not parliamentarians, can influence policy in a variety of ways. On the one hand, they can express themselves at the annual party congress. in the three main parties. this occurs in autumn and lasts about a week. Second, the local party has the power to decide who will be the party's candidate for parliament in their area in the next election. However, these powers are limited by one important consideration - the unit's appearance. Party politics are always presented as potential government policy, and the main parliamentarians of a party are always presented as potential ministers. If you want to look like a realistic potential government, you don't want to show your differences to the public. Party congresses are always televised d. For this reason, they sometimes tend to be showcases, whose main purpose is less to debate important issues than to lift the spirits of supporters and show the public a dynamic and cohesive party. Furthermore, when local party members decide not to re-elect the current deputy as their candidate in an election, this reveals disagreements and arguments. As a result, party members do not like this, and most MPs can be confident that their local party will re-elect them in the next election (see Chapter 1I).

The Modern Situation Over the past forty years or so, traditional confidence in the British political system has been eroded. In 1950, despite the difficulties of the Second World War, Great Britain could claim to be the richest and most stable country in Europe. In general, people seemed to know what they wanted and what they believed. The ys seemed sure of themselves. This is no longer true. Great Britain is often ranked as one of the poorest countries in Europe, its governments' policies have diverged in different directions and its population tends to be pessimistic about the future (loss of confidence). It is already common for politicians and political commentators, when calling for changes on any subject, to negatively compare the country with another European country like this. Under these circumstances, it is quite possible that some of the defining features of British public life will change. Issuing ID cards is an area of ​​potential change. The British have always been very proud not to have them. This is seen as proof of the British commitment to individual rights. It also helped make Britons feel different. But what


II'- A loss of confidence

In 1991, Prime Minister John Major set out his vision of Britain as "a nation at ease with itself".

However. An opinion poll published in February 1992 indicated that his vision was not a reality. More than 1,000 adults were interviewed face-to-face in 100 areas across the UK and asked about their attitudes towards various aspects of life in the UK. In a series of questions. Respondents were asked if they took pride in certain facilities. Here are some of the survey results, compared to the results of similar surveys conducted 20-30 years ago.

% approval for StatemelH 1960 1992 The British monarch is proud of The British Parliament is





something to be proud of 89 The British education system is something to be proud of ( 0 to be proud of 77


This is how proud I can be of the British healthcare system

In the 1992 poll, few respondents said their pride in Britain and British institutions had increased in recent years; 54% said it had decreased.



6 Political life.... The Rushdie Case Salman Rushdie is a British citizen of Muslim origin and a respected writer. In early 1989, his book The Satanic Verses was published. Many Muslims in Britain are extremely upset by the publication of the book. They considered this a terrible insult to Islam. They therefore demanded that the book be banned and its author put on trial (Q-court for blasphemy (use of language to insult God). To do both would have violated the long-established tradition of free speech and freedom of speech. religious belief. In any case, there is nothing in British law that can justify both. There are censorship laws or shipping laws, but they only relate to (obscenity and national security. There is again a law on blasphemy, but only if relates to the Christian religion, moreover, since the second half of the twentieth century, the tendency has been to use both legal forms as little as possible and to prioritize the principle of freedom of expression.

it's the benefit of being different, when "different" means "worse". At the same time, there is growing pressure for a Freedom of Information Act. Another possibility is that Britain will finally get a written constitution. An unwritten constitution works very well, if at all. Everyone in the country shares the same attitudes and principles about what is most important in political life and what the rights and duties of the people are, so it works very well in a society where everyone belongs to the same culture. But like most other European countries today, Britain today is multicultural, which means that some sections of society can sometimes have radically different ideas about these things. The case of Salman Rushdie is an excellent example of this situation (C> The Rushdie - Case). As long as everyone in a country thinks that way at the same time in such a case, there is no need to worry about inconsistencies in the law. There is no need to question the existence of laws or update them. They are just interpreted differently to match the change in prevailing opinion. This has happened in the UK so far. But the Rushd dh case is an example of what can happen when radically opposing views on an issue prevail simultaneously in different sectors of society. Under these circumstances, the traditional laissez-faire approach to law can become dangerous.



To what extent can the British attitude to politics be described as "blissfully cynical"? Are people in your country equally cynical? Are you so happy about it? In most parliaments in the western world, the place where deputies debate is shaped like a semicircle. But in the UK there are two sets of ranks facing each other. Why is the UK Parliament different in this regard?

3 How does the role of political parties in the UK differ from their role in your country? 4 Why does Britain not have a written constitution? need a


• Try watching some of the Yes, Prime Minister programs (available as a BBC video). There is a book of the same name published by BBC Books.


7 To monarchy

The appearance of the monarch's position in Great Britain is a perfect illustration of the contradictory nature of the constitution. Only from the evidence of the written law. the queen has almost absolute power and everything seems very undemocratic. The US Constitution talks about

"Government of the people for the people by the people". There is no law in the UK that requires this. In fact, there is no legal term for "the people". Every autumn, Elizabeth II, who became queen in 1952, delivers a speech at the Opening of Parliament. In it she says what "my government" intends to do next year. And indeed it is their government, not the people's. As far as the law is concerned, it can

choose someone she likes to run the government for her. There are no restrictions on who she chooses to be her prime minister. not

it must be someone who was elected. She could choose me; She might even choose you. The same goes for selecting people to fill a few hundred or more other ministerial positions. And when she is fed up with her ministers, she can just fire them. Officially, they are all "servants of the crown" (not servants of anything like "the country" or "the people"). She also appears to have great power over Parliament. It is she who convenes a parliament, and she

which dissolves them before a general election (see Chapter 2). Nothing passed by Parliament can become law until it has given its consent. Likewise, it is the Queen and no other authority figure who represents the law before the courts. In the United States, when the police take someone to court to charge them with a crime, the court records show that "the people" charged that person. In other countries, it may be the "state" that brings the charges. But that's how it is in the UK

'the crown' . This is due to the legal authority of the monarch. And if a defendant is found guilty of a crime, he or she can be taken to one of "Her Majesty's" prisons. Other countries have “citizens”. But in Britain, people are legally called 'subjects' - subjects of Her Majesty The Queen. Furthermore, there is a principle in English law that the monarch cannot do anything that is legally wrong. In other words, Queen Elizabeth is above the law.

... The House of Windsor Windsor is the surname of the royal family. The press often refers to its members as 'the Windsors'. Queen Elizabeth is only the fourth monarch to use that name. This is not because a 'new' royal family took the throne of Brirain four reigns ago. That's because George V, Elizabeth's grandfather, changed the family name. It was Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, but during the First World War it was thought better that the king not have a German-sounding name.


7 To monarchy

...The Royal Family • Queen Eliza Beth, the Queen Mother, died in 2002 at the age of 101, the year of the Queen's current Golden Jubilee. Her walks through the bombed-out areas of London during World War II with her husband. King George VI made it popular with the British people. She remained the consistently most popular member of the royal family until her death. • Queen Elizabeth II was born in 1926 and became queen in 1952, following the death of her father, George VI, who had reigned since 1936 (when her older brother, Edward VIII, abdicated). She is one of the longest reigning monks in British history. She is widely respected for the way she performs her duties and is universally liked. • Prince Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, married the current Queen on 19+7. During the 1960s and 1970s, his outspoken views on controversial issues sometimes embarrassed the royal family. • Princess Margar et. The Queen's younger sister died in 2002. • Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, was born in 1948. As the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, he is heir to the throne. He cares about the environment and living conditions in British cities. He sometimes gives critical speeches about aspects of modern life.

Princess Margaret the Queen Mother

Prinz Chorles

The Queen

• Princess Diana married Prince Charles in 1981. The couple separated in 1992 and later divorced. Princess Diana died in a car accident in 1997. She was a glamorous and popular character during her lifetime. • Princess Anne, daughter of the Queen (also known as the Princess Royal), was Horn at 1%.0. She separated from her husband after they gave birth to a poor son and daughter. In 1992 she remarried. She is widely respected for her charitable work, which she does in a spirit of realism. • Prince Andrawn, the Duke of York was born in 1960 and is the Queen

Prince Philip

second son. He is divorced from his wife Sarah Ferguson (known as "Fergie" in the popular press). You have two daughters. • Prince Edward, the Queen's youngest son, was born in 1964. He is involved He married Sophie Rhysones in 1999. He and his wife are the Duke and Duchess of Wessex • Prince William (born 1982) and Prince Henry (born 1984) is the son of Charles and Diana. William is in the line of succession to the throne after his father.

The Reality In practice, of course, the reality looks quite different. In fact, the Queen cannot choose anyone to be Prime Minister. She must elect someone who has the support of a majority of MPs in the House of Commons (the elected chamber of the two chambers of Parliament). That's because the law says that "his" her government can only raise taxes with the approval of the House of Commons, that is, if they haven't elected such a person. the government would cease to function. In practice, who selects them is the leader of the strongest party in the House of Commons. Likewise, it is really the prime minister who decides who the other ministers in the government will be (although officially the prime minister is simply "advising" the monarch on who to choose).

The Role of the Monarch The situation is similar with Parliament. Again, the prime minister will talk about 'asking' for the dissolution of Parliament if he wishes to hold an election, but normally it would be impossible for the monarch to refuse such a request ue st'. Although the queen could, in theory, withhold royal assent to a bill passed by Parliament and thus prevent it from becoming law (see Chapter 9), no monarch has done so since 1708. Indeed, royal assent is as automatic that the queen doesn't even bother to deliver them personally. Someone else will sign the documents for you. In reality, the Queen has almost no power at all. When she opens Parliament every year, the speech she gives was written for her. She makes no secret of it. She obviously reads the script prepared for her word for word. If she strongly disagrees with any of the government's directives, she could ask government ministers to change the text of the speech a little sooner, but that's about it. She really can't bash the government for imposing any of her policies.

The role of the monarch What, then, is the role of the monarch? Many opinions are offered by political and legal experts. Three roles are often mentioned. First, the monarch is the personal embodiment of the government of the country. This means people can criticize the royal government all they want and argue that it should be ousted without being accused of being unpatriotic. Due to the clear separation between the symbol of government (the Queen) and the current government (the ministers who are also members of parliament), a change of government does not jeopardize the stability of the country as a whole. Other countries without a monarch must use something else as their country's symbol. In the United States, for example, one of these is the flag, and any vandalism of the flag is actually a criminal offense. Second, it is argued that the monarch could serve as the ultimate check on a government that became dictatorial. If the government managed to pass a law through Parliament that was obviously terribly bad and very unpopular, the monarch could withhold royal assent and the law would not become law. It is also possible that if a Prime Minister who is defeated in a general election (and therefore no longer requires a majority in the House of Commons) immediately asks for Parliament to be dissolved again (so that another election can take place), the monarch could reject the motion and dismiss the Prime Minister. Third, the monarch plays a very practical role. As a figurehead and representative of the country, Queen Elizabeth II can perform the ceremonial functions to which heads of state usually dedicate their early days. In this way, the royal government has more time to deal with the real task of running the country.

.. Honors A list of honors is published twice a year. Those whose names appear on the list are then summoned to Buckingham Palace, where the Queen introduces them... with a plaque authorizing them to write KG (and to be formally addressed as him). , or KCB, or (BE , or many other possible combinations of lcu ers. after their names. The leuers stand for titles such as 'Knight of the Order of the Garter', 'Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath', 'Corn m and cr of the British Empire' ' etc. Lifetime vows are also given which entitle candidates to a seat in the House of Lords, which the monarch has 'honored' them in exchange for their services. you can see the title names don't seem to make much sense in modern times anymore, but that doesn't stop people from using it as one to feel a real "honor" when receiving a b)" title from the monarch herself! proportion of awards [0 Politicians and civil servants, but also businessmen, sports stars, rock musicians and other artists.

The Beall" with their MBEs



7 To monarchy

The value of the monarchy

The Queen Who Attracts Foreign Tourists... The Economic Argument Any tourist brochure for Great Britain in any country in the world makes the monarchy prominent. How much the British royal family and the events and buildings associated with the monarchy help the tourism industry, or exactly how much money they help bring into the country, cannot be accurately estimated. But most people who work with tourism find it a lot!

.... Edward and Mrs Simpson For the past two centuries, the public has wanted their monarch to have high moral standards. In 1936, Edward VIII, the current Queen's uncle, was forced to abdicate (resign from the throne). This happened because he wanted to marry a woman who had divorced two husbands. (Besides, she wasn't even a British aristocrat, she was an American.) The government and the country's main churches insisted that Edward could not marry her and remain king. He decided to marry her. The couple then went abroad. Despite the constitutional crisis it caused, the Duke of Windsor (as Edward later became) and his wife were popular celebrities in Britain throughout their lives, and the King's abdication has gone down in popular history as an example of the power of love.

However, all these benefits are hypothetical. It cannot be proven that only a mon arc can provide them. Other modern democracies can do without them. The British monarchy is probably more important to the country's economy (I> The Economic Argument) than it is to the system of government. Also, the monarchy is very popular with most Britons. The monarchy gives the British people a symbol of continuity and a harmless outlet for expressions of national pride. Even in very difficult times, it never seemed likely that Britain would turn to a dictator to get her out of her troubles. The size of its monarchy may have been one of the reasons for this. Occasions like the Opening of Parliament, the Queen's official birthday, royal weddings and ceremonial events like the Changing of the Guard make up for the lack of color and ceremony in most people's everyday lives. (There is no tradition of local pageants as in the United States, and very few traditional local festivals survive as in other European countries.) Furthermore, the glamorous life of "royals" provides a source of entertainment that often lasts beyond the qualities of television. . novel . When it was announced in 1992 that Prince Charles and his wife Princess Diana were separating, even the most "serious" newcomers discussed much more than the possible political implications. The Sunday Times ran a "five-page special on the royal breakup".

The future of the monarchy Over the last 250 years, the British monarchy as an institution has rarely been a controversial political issue. Only occasionally was the existence of the monarchy itself discussed. Few people in Britain could be described as 'monarchists' or 'anti-monarchists' in the sense in which those terms are commonly used in other countries. Most people are vague about it or just don't care. However, there is much debate about what kind of monarchy Britain should have. During the last two decades of the 20th century, there was a general cooling of enthusiasm. The Queen herself remains popular. But the various marital problems in her family have weakened the prestige of royalty in the eyes of many people. The problem is that, since the reign of Queen Victoria, the public has been encouraged to look to the royal family as a model of Christian family life. The change in attitude can be seen by comparing Queen Elizabeth's 25th birthday as queen with her 40th birthday. In 1977 there were neighborhood street fairs across the country, most of them organized spontaneously and voluntarily. But none of that happened in 1992. On 20 November 1992, a fire damaged one of the Queen's favorite homes, valued at £60 million. There were

The future of the monarchy

Expressing public sympathy for the Queen. But when the government announced that it wanted to finance the repairs with public money, sympathy quickly turned to anger. The Queen was recently named the richest woman in the world

People didn't see why she shouldn't pay for them herself. In fact, when it comes to Inoney, the most expressed opinion is about the "King List". In the early 1990s, even some conservatives -

Five MPs, traditionally strong supporters of the monarchy, began to protest how much the royal family was costing the country.

During her long reign, Elizabeth II was exempt from taxation. In response to the change in attitude, the Queen decided to pay taxes on her personal income. In addition, civil list payments to some members of the royal family

were stopped. (The Civil List is the money the Queen and some of her relatives receive from Parliament each year so that they can

fulfilling her public duties.) For most people, the most notable event marking Queen Elizabeth's 40th birthday was a television program spanning a year of her life that revealed revealing details of her private family life. The following year, parts of Buckingham Palace were opened to the public for the first time (to raise money for repairs to Windsor Castle). These events are perhaps indicative of the future royal style - a little less grand, a little less distant.

.. A Bad Year The Sun is Britain's most popular daily newspaper (see chapter (8). This was the headline on the page after the Queen spoke of 1992 as onnus horribilis (Latin for 'an awful year'). ) As well as the separation of Charles and Diana 19 9 2 the burning of Windsor Castle and the news included that Australia intended to cut its ties with the 'old country' and become a republic The headline uses the similarity between 'an nes' and 'anus' for pun on 'boom' (which can mean both 'anus' and 'awful' in colloquial British English.) It also mimics the Queen's supposed common use of the pronoun un 'one' for 'laugh me'. So the headline mixes the .... too formal sounding 'one' with the .... too colloquial 'player'. It is impossible to imagine that such an irreverent (and unsympathetic) headline could have appeared in J91)0S or 19605.



Why does the British Prime Minister go on, La 'advi se' and 'please' the Queen, when

Does everyone know that he or she is really telling her what to do? British attitudes towards the royal family changed in the last quarter of the 20th century. How has it changed and what shows that there has been a change? Why do you think this happened?

3 Would you advise the British to abolish their monarchy? 4 Do you have a monarch in your country, or

someone who plays a similar role.” If so, how does your position compare to that of

the British monarch” If not, do you think your country would benefit if you had a figurehead who could perform the duties of a monarch?


• The Queen and I by Sue Townsend (Mandarin) contains humorous characterizations of key members of the royal family. • Books on monarchy abound. These include: The Prince of Wales: A Biography by Jonathan Dimbleby (Little, Brown and Company), The Queen by Kenneth Harris (Orion), Elizabeth R: The Role of the Monarchy Today by Antony Jay (BBC Books), Diana, Her True Story and Diana, Her New Life, both by Andrew Morton (Michael O'Mara Books Limited).



8 The government

... Ministers and departments Most department heads have the title of "Secretary of State" (such as "Secretary of State for the Environment"). The minister responsible for Britain's relations with the outside world is known by all as the 'Foreign Secretary'. The “Minister of the Interior” is responsible for law and order in the country. Their departments are called the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Home Office respectively (the words "Exterior" and "Interior" are not used). The words "Secretary" and "Office" reflect the history of government in Great Britain. where government departments formed part of the monarch's domestic arrangements. Another important person is the Chancellor of the Treasury, head of the Treasury (according to her, son of the Secretary of the Treasury).

Who rules Britain? When the media talk about "the government" they usually mean one of two things. The term "the government" can be used to refer to any politician appointed by the monarch (on the advice of the prime minister) to help run government departments (there are several politicians in each department) or to carry out various other special tasks, such as B. Directing the activities of Parliament. There are usually about a hundred red "government" members in that sense. Although there are different levels, each one has its own titles (c-ministers and departments). Government members are commonly referred to as "Mirusters". All ministers come from within Parliament, most of them from the House of Commons. Unlike the United States and some other European countries, it is rare for someone outside of Parliament to become a minister. (And when that happens, the person in question quickly finds a seat in either house.) The other meaning of the term "the government" is more limited. It only applies to the most powerful of these politicians, namely the Prime Minister and other members of the Cabinet. There are usually about twenty people in the cabin (although there are no rules about this). Most of them are heads of government departments. Partly as a result of the electoral system (see Chapter 10), unlike much of Western Europe, Britain normally has "one-party government". In other words, all government members belong to the same political party. Traditionally, British politicians have thought that a coalition government (with multiple parties involved) is a bad idea. Since the formation of modern political parties in the 19th century, Great Britain has had only a total of twenty-one years of coalition governments (1915-1922 and 1931-1945). Even when no single party briefly held a majority of seats in the House of Commons in the 1970s, no coalition was formed. Instead, there was a "minority government". The habit of one-party rule helped to establish the tradition known as collective responsibility. That is, every member of government, no matter how young, is responsible for all policies made by the government. This also applies if, as is often the case, he or she is not involved in the creation. Of course,

the cabinet

A cabinet meeting is in progress

Individual government officials may have different opinions, but they are expected to keep them private. Under the Convention, no member of government can publicly criticize government policies. Any member who does so must resign.

The Cabinet Obviously, no government wants an important member of its party to start criticizing it. This would lead to splits in the party. Therefore, ruling party leaders often become members of the cabinet, where they are bound by the convention of collective responsibility for government policies. The cabinet meets once a week and makes decisions about new policies, the implementation of existing policies and the direction of the various government departments. As all members of government must agree, it is a closely guarded secret who says exactly what at these meetings. Reports are prepared on the meetings and distributed to government departments. They summarize topics discussed and decisions taken, but never refer to individuals or their statements. To keep the complicated machinery of modern government running, there is an organization called the Cabinet Office. He manages a busy communications network, keeping ministers in touch and preparing agendas for cabinet meetings. It does the same for the many cabinet committees. These committees are appointed by Cabinet to investigate various matters in more depth than individual Cabinet members have the time (or knowledge) to do. Unlike the members of the “government” itself, the members of these committees are not necessarily political.

The Prime Minister The position of a British Prime Minister (PM) is in direct contrast to that of a monarch. Although the Queen appears to have a lot of power, in reality she has very little. On the other hand, the Prime Minister doesn't seem to have much power, but he actually has a lot of power.

.... The Cabinet The story of the Cabinet is a good example of the tendency towards secrecy in British politics. It began in the 18th century as an informal gathering of leading ministers and officials from the royal household. It had no formal recognition. Officially, the government was run by the Privy Council, a body of one hundred or more people (including those belonging to the "Cabinet") who answer directly to the monarch (but not to each other). Over the years, the cabinet gradually assumed effective power. Privy C2.-11~cil is now a purely ceremonial organization with no power. Among other things, it includes all current ministers and the most important former ministers. Over the last hundred years, the cabinet itself has become increasingly "official" and publicly recognized. It has also increased in size and as a result is now a very stiff and formal body to make the royal decisions. For the past fifty years, there have been unofficial "internal cabinets" (composed of the prime minister and a few other key ministers). It is believed that much of the real decision-making takes place here and in cabinet committees.



8 The government~

Do not. 10 Downing Street

Here is an example from traditional fiction that prime ministers are not particularly important people. His official residence has no special name. Not from outside either. it looks special. It's not even a family home! Inside though. it's much bigger than it looks. This is where the cabinet meets, this is where the cabinet office works. The PM lives "on top of the shop" on the top floor. The Chancellor of the Exchequer lives next door at No. II and the Prime Minister (see Chapter 10) in No. 12 , so the whole street is much more important than it seems. Yet. there is something very domestic about this arrangement. After the government loses an election, the three ministers have to throw out the rubbish and wait for the moving vans to show up, like everyone else moving house. The Prime Minister also has an official residence in the countryside west of London called "Chequers".

business indeed. In practice, as we have seen (Chapter 7), the Queen is obliged to delegate the office of Prime Minister to whoever can hold a majority in the House of Commons. This usually means the leader of the party with the most MPs. In that sense, the Prime Minister is nothing more than the apex of His Majesty's political servants. The traditional expression describes it as "primus inter por" (Latin for "first among equals"). In reality, however, the other ministers are not as powerful. There are several reasons for this. First, the monarch's Patronato power (the power to appoint people to all kinds of jobs and honor people) is, by convention, actually the prime minister's patronage rights. The fiction is that the Queen appoints people to government positions. on the Prime Minister's advice". But what really happens is that the Prime Minister simply decides. Everyone knows that. The media doesn't even give the impression that the Prime Minister has managed to persuade the Queen to set a specific simply state that he or she has made an appointment. The strength of the prime minister's patronage is demonstrated by the modern phenomenon known as 'cabinet reshuffle'. least once every two years.) Some cabinet members are fired and some new members are hired, but most existing members are shuffled around like a deck of cards, each getting a new department to look after The Second Reason for Dominance of a modern prime minister over other ministers is the power of the public public images of the prime minister The mass media tended to make politics a matter of public opinion. personalities. The details of the guidelines are difficult to understand. A person who appears constantly on television and in new newspapers is much easier to identify. Everyone in the country can recognize the prime minister, while many cannot identify the faces of the other ministers. As a result, the prime minister can step over other ministers and address the public directly if necessary.

...The Ideal Prime Minister Here is another excerpt (see Chapter 6) from Yes, Prime Minister. political satire. It's an excerpt from a senior official's private diary. In it, he describes his conversation with another official, in which they discussed who should be the new prime minister. When he says "experts" in the last line, he means it. Of course. the employees themselves!

We're both pretty skeptical about them [the two candidates]. It's a difficult decision, like deciding which lunatic should run the asylum. We agreed that they would pose the same problems. Both are interventionists and both would have silly ideas about running the country if they became prime ministers. ... It is clearly advisable to look for a compromise candidate. We agree that such a candidate should have the following qualities: be malleable, flexible, presentable, not having fixed opinions, not having brilliant ideas, not being intellectually engaged and not having the determination to change anything. Above all, he must be someone we know can be professionally guided and who is willing to put government affairs in the hands of experts.

the public service

Third, all ministers except the prime minister have been busy looking after their prime ministers since 1940. They don't have time to think about it and debate Winston Churchill (19+0-4-1)) Government policy as a whole, but the Prime Minister has and Clement Aulec's Cabinet (194-5-1) I) Winston Churchill's committees ([ 9 I) [-I) ')) usually represents him directly, not Anthony's Cabinet Eden (19H-,)7) as a whole. Furthermore, the Cabinet Office is under the direct control of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan (19'7-63) and operates in the same building. As a result, Alec Douglas-Home's prime minister (1963-64-) knows more about what's going on than other ministers. Since Harold Wilson (1964--70) does not have enough time for the cabinet to discuss most matters, a decision by Edward Heath ([97°-74-) must be made as to what should be done. Harold Wilson (1974–76) and Lames Callaghan (1976–79) who make that choice. Ways that are not discussed can effectively be decided by the Prime Minister. John Major's collective responsibility convention (J991-97) means that the rest of Tony Blair's government (1997-) must follow whatever the Prime Minister decides.

the public service

BJUf :::: Ccnservetive Red :::: Lcbour

Given the complexity of modern states, there really aren't many people in a British "government" (as defined above). Unlike some other countries (eg the US), even the highest administrative positions do not change hands when a new government emerges. The origins of civil service come to power. The day-to-day running of government and the British cult of the skilful execution of its policies in the hands of one and the same amateur (see Chapter I)) is not bourgeois. usually openly declared. But public service. Governments come and go, but civil service stays in the nines. It is no coincidence that the highest-ranking official in a tenth-century government held the title of Permanent Secretary. the modern civil service was established, it was a conscious principle unlike politicians, servants, even the highest echelons, as described by himself unknown to the general public. There are probably less than 10,000 contemporary historians in the country who, if you ask, could give you the Macauley: names of the current Cabinet Secretary (who heads the Cabinet. We believe men are in office) or the current Chief of Staff for the Civil Service; even fewer know they have been employed. to twenty-one the names of more than one of the current permanent secretaries. or twenty years and two. in studies, which for those who belong to it, the British civil service is a career. It has no direct connection, most senior positions are usually held by people who have already worked in a company and the effect is that they have been there for twenty years or more. These people receive a high salary to open, empower and (higher than their ministers) have absolute job security to enrich the spirit, they usually become (unlike their ministers) and have a good chance of getting it Being awarded is a honor employee found in everyone's business. By comparison, clergymen, even those higher in rank than men, who have been in the same department for several years, are still new to office at eighteen or nineteen. devoted themselves to the special task. Also, officials know the secrets of past government studies about their vocation. unknown government of the current minister. For all these reasons, it is often possible for civil servants, i.e. it is better to be a layman than an expert, to exercise a great deal of control over their work as ministers, and it is sometimes more likely to be said that they are, rather than not his ministers, who really master knowledge. country reforms. There is undoubtedly some truth to this opinion. In fact, they put more emphasis on it. An interesting case in early 1994 suggests that officers now expect expertise but have some level of control from headquarters. At this point, the association, which still believes that the government represents the country's top officials, made an official complaint, not applied science.



8 O Governo ~ White h all

This is the name of the street in London that runs from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Ministry of Defense are located here. These are the two oldest government bodies. The term "Whitehall" is sometimes used to refer to the government as a whole (although other departments are on other nearby streets). This happens when the author or speaker wants to emphasize the administrative aspects of government. The expression 'the opinion in Whitehall...' refers not only to the opinions of government ministers, but also, and perhaps even more, to the opinions of senior officials.

that four government ministers "insulted" their civil service advisers and generally treated them "with contempt". It was the first time such a claim had been made. It seemed that the long and unprecedented reign of the same party (the Conservatives - see Chapter 10) had changed the traditional balance of power. However, the British civil service enjoys a (largely) deserved reputation for absolute political impartiality. Many ministers mentioned the power struggle between them and their top officials, but few complained of political bias. Senior officials know that their power depends on staying out of politics and being absolutely loyal to the current minister. The modern critique of the civil service does not question its loyalty, but its efficiency. Despite the reforms, the upper tier of the civil service is still largely made up of people from the same narrow strata of society - people who went to public school (see Chapter 14) and then to Oxford or Cambridge, where they studied subjects like history or classical languages. It is criticized, therefore, that the public service does not have sufficient knowledge in topics such as economics or technology. and who lives too much in their own closed world, isolated from the concerns of most people in society. In the late 20th century, ministers tried to overcome these perceived shortcomings by hiring specialists from outside the civil service to work on various projects and providing their own political advisers (or, as SOIl1e would say, in competition with) their officials.

central and local government


100 ,

Some countries, like the US and Canada, are federal. They are made up of several states, each with its own government, with its own powers to legislate and collect taxes. In these countries, central governments have powers only because states have delegated powers to them. In the UK it is the opposite. Local government agencies (commonly known as “councils”) only have powers because the central government has delegated powers to them. In fact, they only exist because the central government allows them to exist. Over the last hundred years, British governments have reorganized local government several times, abolishing some local councils and creating new ones. The local government system is very similar to the national government system. The representatives are elected representatives, the so-called Councilors (the equivalent of MPs). They meet in a council chamber at City Hall or City Hall (the equivalent of Parliament), where they make policies, which are implemented by local government officials (the equivalent of civil servants).

Central and Local Administration II-

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Most Britons have far more direct contact with local government than with national government. Local governments traditionally manage almost all public services. Collectively, they employ three times as many people as the national government. Furthermore, there is no system in the UK where a national government official is responsible for a specific geographical area. (There is no such thing as a 'mayor' or 'governor'.) In practice, therefore, local councils have traditionally been quite free from constant central interference in their day-to-day work. Local governments can only charge one type of tax. This is a wealth tax. (All other types are collected by the central government.) Used to be called “installments” and paid only by those who owned property. Its height varies depending on the size and location of the property. In the early 1990s, it was replaced by the Community Charge (known as the Poll Tax). This charge was

Counties, boroughs, parishes Counties are the oldest country divisions in England and Wales. Most of them existed before the Norman Conquest (see Chapter 2). Ys are still used today for local government purposes, although some have been 'invented' more recently (eg Humberside) and others have no government function but are still used for other purposes. One is Middlesex, which covers the western part of Greater London (the letters still spell 'Middx') and which is the name of a top-flight cricket team. Many counties have 'shir e' in their name (e.g. Hertfordshir and Hampshire, Leicestershire) 'Shires' were or were originally called counties Boroughs were originally estates that became large and important enough to receive their own government free from control Today, the name is now only used in London for local government purposes, but many towns still proudly refer to themselves as Royal Boroughs Parishes were originally villages backed by a local church. They became a local government unit in the 19th century. Today they constitute the smallest local government unit in England. The name "congregation" is still used in the organization of the main Christian churches common churches in England (see Chapter 13).



8 Government .... Greater London Council The history of Greater London Council (GLC) is an example of the struggle for power between central and local government. In the early 1980s, Britain had a Conservative government in its own right, at a time when that government was unpopular. the left-wing Labor Party in London won local elections and gained control of the GLC. The Labor-controlled GLC introduced many measures that the national government did not like (for example, paying local taxes for them). The government decided by a majority in the House of Commons to abolish the GLC. was able. The powers of the GLC were delegated to the thirty-two Horoughs of London or to special communes. It wasn't until 2000 that a single government agency was created for all of London and the city had its first directly elected mayor.

.... Public libraries compared to people in other western countries. the British public buys relatively few books. However. it doesn't necessarily mean [that they read less. There are around 5,000 public libraries in the UK (about one in 12,000 people). On average, each uses about 5,000+ books. A recent survey showed that 70% of children between the ages of four and sixteen use the local library at least twice a month. and that 5% of them use it once a week or more. Also, many Brits seem to prefer libraries to bookshops, even if they want to own a book. Nearly nine million books are stolen from library shelves every year.

The same applies to all those residing in the catchment area of ​​a municipality. It was very unpopular and was quickly replaced by 'city tax', which is based on the appraised value of a property and the number of people living on it. Local governments cannot raise enough money this way to provide the services requested by the central government. In addition, recent governments have placed limits on the amount of council tax that municipalities can collect and now collect commercial property taxes themselves (and then divide the money among local governments). As a result, more than half of a local government's revenue is provided by the central government. The modern trend is towards ever greater central government control. It's not just about controlling how the local government raises money. There are now more laws governing how councils can manage their affairs. In addition, schools and hospitals can now escape local government control (see Chapters 14 and 18). Perhaps this trend is inevitable now that national partisan politics is dominating local politics. Successful independent candidates (candidates who do not belong to any political party) in municipal elections are increasingly rare. Most people now vote in local elections based on their national party preferences, if they vote at all, so these elections become a kind of opinion poll on the performance of the national government.

Local Government Services Most of the many US services provided by modern government operate locally in the UK. These include public sanitation and environmental health inspection, out-of-home rubbish collection (people who do this are euphemistically called "dustren"), and the cleaning and tidying of all public places (which are carried out by "street sweepers") (e- The organization of the local gol'emment). They also include providing public swimming pools, which charge an entrance fee, and public parks, which do not. for sports such as football and cricket, which can be booked in advance for a fee. Public libraries are another well-known service (e-Public Libraries). free. If you borrow books and want to take them with you from the library, you must have a library card or F Travelcards (these are available to residents). Some CDs and the occasional VCR can also be borrowed. The popularity of libraries in the UK is indicated by the fact that, in a cardless country (see Chapter 6), the library card is the most common form of identification for those without a driving licence.

Doubts and suggestions 89

... The Local Government Organization (1995)

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT Towns and cities in England and Wales

The rest of England and Wales and all of Scotland

36 metropolitan boroughs 32 London boroughs

10 regions (Scotland) 47 counties (England and Wales)

Responsible for: City taxes Road and traffic planning Housing regulation Public space safety Garbage collection Garbage collection Education Social services Libraries Leisure and recreation

Responsible for: Municipal Collection Tax Planning Roads and Safe Waste Disposal Education Social Services Libraries Police Firefighters

In these areas some services. such as traffic, police and fire. are governed by special authorities whose members are advisers.

Responsible for: Housing Municipal planning Garbage collection Safety in leisure and recreation in public places

J. P arish e s (England) Communities (Scotland and Wales) They do not have legal powers but are recognized as forums for discussion at the borough or village level. QUESTIONS

Do you think the theory of collective responsibility is good? Does it exist in your country?

What would be the equivalent titles in your country for: Federal Chancellor, Minister of the Interior, Minister of Foreign Affairs? 3 A British prime minister has no legal status that puts him above other politicians. So why are modern British prime ministers so powerful? two

4 How does the relationship between central and local government compare in the UK to your country? 5 Local government in the UK is responsible for most things that affect people's daily lives. So why do you think so few people make them vote in UK local elections?


• Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister 1979-1990) has been the subject of several biographical studies that provide insight into the workings of government. For example. One of the U5 by Hugo Young (Pan Books).

9 Parliament

The activities of Parliament in Great Britain are more or less the same as those of Parliament in any Western democracy. It passes new laws, gives the government the power to raise and spend money. keeps a close eye on government activities and discusses those activities. The British Parliament operates in a large building called the Palace of Westminster (commonly known as "the Houses of Parliament"). This includes offices. Committee rooms, restaurants, bars, libraries, even where I live. It also contains two large rooms. The House of Lords meets in one of them, and the House of Commons meets in the other. The British Parliament is divided into two 'Houses' and its members belong to one or the other, although only members of the House of Commons are not necessarily known as MPs (Members of Parliament). The commons are by far the more important of the two uses. .. Speaker's Chamber of the House of Commons Government Benches 3 Op Position Benches 4 Visitors' Booths .S" Press Booths I


Atmosphere of Parliament

The atmosphere of Parliament See the picture of the House of Commons (e- The House of Commons). The design and layout differs from the interiors of parliament buildings in most other countries. These differences can tell us a lot about what sets the UK Parliament apart. First, look at the sealing arrangements. There are only two rows of benches facing it. To the left of the image are the government benches, on which the ruling party's deputies sit. On the right are the opposition benches. There's no way this layout can reflect all the different shades of political opinion (as a semicircle does). Depending on where you sit. MEPs are "for" (supporting) the government or against it. This spatial separation is emphasized by the table on the floor of the house between the two rows of benches. The speaker's chair, which is slightly above the ground, is also located here. From this dominant position, the speaker sits (ie controls) (ie controls) the debates (e- The speaker). The layout of the benches favors the confrontation between government and opposition. It also psychologically reinforces the reality of Britain's two-party system (see Chapter 6). There are no “cross-benches” for deputies belonging neither to the ruling party nor to the main opposition party. In practice. these parliamentarians sit in the opposition benches furthest from the speaker's chair (lower right corner of the photo). Plan of the Palace of Westminster (main floor)

;d.~..................~..............._ .....~...... ......................................... ....IM::J :L

u 1 Clock Tower (Big Ben) 2 Lobby of the “No” department 3 Lobby of the “Yes” department

... The speaker Anyone who watched the live transmission of the Parliament on April 27, 1992 was able to witness an extraordinary spectacle. A female MP was physically dragged and forced out of her backseat seat by other MPs, apparently against her will (she sat in the big chair in the middle of the House of Commons. What the House of Commons actually did was appoint a new President .The President is the person who directs and controls the discussion in the House of Commons, decides which Member to speak next and ensures that the Rules of Procedure are followed (otherwise the President has the power to demand a public apology from a deputy or (even banning an MP from the House for several days). An important position. In fact, the President is officially the second most important 'commoner' (not aristocrat) in the kingdom after the Prime Minister. Hundreds of years ago, he was the Speaker His job, to communicate the decisions of the Commons to the King (hence the title "Speaker"), since the King used to be very dissatisfied with what the House of Commons had decided, was not a pleasant task. ted, no one wanted the job. They had to be forced to take n. Nowadays the position is much more secure, but the tradition of dragging a reluctant speaker to the chair has remained. In 1992, for the first time, a woman was appointed president, so MPs had to get used to not saying "Mr. Speaker", but to be addressed as "Ms. Speaker" instead. Once a spokesperson is appointed, he or she agrees (Q waives all company policies and remains in office as long as he or she chooses.

Betty Boothroyd, first Speaker of the House of Commons



9 Parliament Secondly, the House of Commons has no 'front', no obvious place from which an MP can address anyone there. MEPs just stand up and speak from where they are sitting. Third, please note that there are no tables for deputies. The pews you sit on are just that - pews, like in a church. This makes it physically easy for them to get in and out of the space, which they often do during debates. Fourth, please note that the house is very small. In fact, there is not enough space for all the deputies. There are more than 650 of them, but there are less than 400 seats. A candidate is supposed to have a "seat" in the House of Commons in an election, but that "seat" is imaginary. Deputies do not have their own seats. No names are marked on the pews. MEPs simply sit wherever (on "their" side of the House) they can find space. All these features result in a very informal atmosphere. Individual deputies who don't have their own "turf" (which would give them a personal seat and table) are encouraged to work together. Furthermore, the Chamber's small size, coupled with the lack of a podium or podium to address them, means that MPs typically do not speak as they would at a large public rally. Members of Parliament generally speak in a conversational tone, and since they cannot take notes while they speak, they generally do not speak for very long! An impassioned speech is sometimes only used on particularly important occasions when all deputies are present. One more thing should be noted about the House of Commons bill. It's on purpose. Historically, it was a coincidence: in the Middle Ages, commoners would gather in a church, and churches in that period often had rows of pews facing each other. But after the house was badly damaged by bombing in 1941, it was deliberately rebuilt in the antique style (with a modern convenience or two like central heating). This was because of a belief in mutual tradition 'pro and contra' and also because of a more general desire for continuity. The old habits have survived to this day in the many customs and detailed rules of procedure that all new parliamentarians must learn. The most notable of these is the rule prohibiting MPs from addressing each other directly or using personal names. All comments and questions must go "through the Chair". A speaking member refers to or asks a question about 'the honorable member of Winchester' or 'my most honored friend'. The Winchester MP may sit directly across from you, but the MP never says "you". These old rules were originally formulated to take the 'heat' off the debate and reduce the possibility of an outbreak of violence. Today they add an air of formality that balances out the informal aspects of the House of Commons and further reinforces MPs' sense of belonging to a special group of people.

The life of an MP 93

The Life of an MP The relative informality of the House of Commons may, in part, result from the British belief in amateurism. Traditionally, deputies are not supposed to be specialist politicians. They must be ordinary people who dedicate part of their time to representing the people. Ideally, they came from all walks of life and brought their everyday experiences with them to Parliament. In fact, deputies were not even paid until the beginning of the 20th century. traditional you


Hansard This is the name given to the daily verbal accounts of all that was said in the House of Commons. They will be published within eight years

hours of day a}' coverage.

should do public service, not pursue a career

themselves. Of course, this tradition meant that only the very rich could afford to be MPs, so while they really did come from a wide variety of backgrounds, they always had power and wealth. Even now, British MPs are not highly paid compared to many of their European counterparts. Furthermore,

By European standards they are incredibly poorly equipped. Most MPs have to share an office and desk with two or more other MPs.

Of course, the ideal image of a talented amateur does not correspond to modern reality. Politics in Britain over the last 40 years has become... Parliamentary day in the business world. Most MPs are full-time politicians and have another job, Commons from Monday to only part-time, if any. But the amateur tradition is still reflected on Thursdays, the business hours of the House of Commons. They are "Herrenliours". The Chamber does not meet in the morning. This is traditionally the case

14,3 0


Ideally, MEPs would do their normal jobs or pursue other interests outside Parliament. From Monday to Thursday the house only opens at 2.30 pm (on Friday it starts at

14 ·3 5 question time

Tomorrow, but early afternoon for the weekend. ) . It is also devoted to the holidays: four weeks at Christmas, two at Easter and Pentecost, and about eleven weeks in summer (early August to mid-October). ) . But this seemingly easy life is deceiving. In fact, the average modern MP spends more time at work than any other professional in the country. Monday through Thursday, commons never "raise" (i.e., finish the day's work) until 2 2 3 0, and sometimes stay several hours longer. Occasionally he debates most things. In fact, the House of Commons spends more time sitting overall each year than any other parliament.

fifteen . 3 0 Miscellaneous, eg. B. a statement by a minister. after this

to Europe

Deputies' mornings are filled with committee work, research, preparing speeches, and tackling the problems of constituents (the people they represent). Even weekends are not free for parliamentarians. They are expected to visit their communities (the areas they represent).

and hear the problems of everyone who wants to see them. It's an extremely busy life that leaves her with little time for other careers. MPs don't have a lot of time to spend with their families.

,v-with which the main business of the day begins. in more than half

Days that means a debate on a proposal for a new law. known as "Bill". Most of these calculations are introductory

collected by the government, but certain days a year are reserved for "private member accounts"; that is, legislative proposals from individual deputies. Many of them do not become law because there is not enough interest from other deputies and not enough time for proper discussion about them. 22.00

Postponement request: The main subjects of the day are suspended and the deputies can bring another subject for general discussion.

Politicians have a higher divorce rate than the (already high)

2 2 .3 0

National average.

The house goes up (normally).


9 Parliament

Parliamentary Business The basic procedure for business in the House of Commons is a debate on a specific proposal, followed by a resolution accepting or rejecting that proposal. Sometimes the resolution just expresses a point of view, but often it's about writing a new law or approving (or not approving) government plans to raise taxes or spend money in specific ways. Occasionally there is no need for a vote, but usually there is a vote and in these cases there is a "split". This means that deputies must vote for or against a specific proposal. They do this by going down one of the two aisles on the side of the house - one is for "yes" (those who agree with the proposal) and another is for "no" (those who disagree). But the resolutions of the House of Commons are only part of its activities. There are also commissions. Some committees are appointed to examine specific draft legislation, but there are also standing committees charged with investigating government activities in a specific area. These committees have about five members and are formed to reflect the relative strengths of parties in the House of Commons as a whole. You have the power to ask certain people, such as B. Employees, to convene and respond to your inquiries. They are becoming an increasingly important part of House of Commons business,

The party system in Parliament

.... Front and back pews Although MPs do not have their own seats in the House of Commons, there are two seating areas reserved for specific MPs. These areas are the front seats on each side of the house. Leading members of the ruling party (Le Ministers) and leading members of the main opposition party sit on these benches. These people are therefore called "service desks". Parliamentarians who do not hold government or parallel cabinet positions (see Chapter 8) are known as “backbenchers”.

Most divisions occur along party lines. Deputies know they owe their position to their party, so they almost always vote according to their party's dictates. People who make MPs do this are called whips. Each of the two major parties has several deputies who fulfill this role. Your job is to inform all MPs in your party how to vote. Traditionally, if the government loses a vote in Parliament on a very important issue, it must resign. Therefore, if there is a difference of opinion on this matter, deputies are expected to go to the Chamber and vote even if they were not present during the debate. Whips act as intermediaries between the backbenchers and the front seat (0) front and back) of a party. They keep the party leadership informed of MPs' views. They are powerful people. By having the "ear" of party leaders, they can influence which backbenchers are promoted to the front bench and which are not. For these reasons, “rebellions” among a group of deputies of a party (where they vote against their party) are very rare. Major parties sometimes allow “free voting” when MPs vote according to their own beliefs rather than party policy. Some very important decisions, such as the abolition of the death penalty and the decision to allow television cameras in the House of Commons, were taken this way.

The party system in Parliament

Tony Blair, Prime Minister of 99 7, answers questions in the House of Commons



How a Bill Becomes a Law Before a bill begins to move through Parliament. there will be a lot of discussion. If it is a proposal from the government. Green and White Books have probably been published. Explanation of the ideas behind the proposal. After that. Lawyers formulate the proposal for a bill. Most bills start in the House of Commons, where they pass through a series of stages.

First Reading This is a formal announcement only without debate. Second Reading The House debates the general principles of the bill and votes on most cases.


Committee stage A committee of deputies examines the details of the bill and votes on amendments (amendments) to parts of it.

--~"';+ '--Rapporteur phase The Chamber analyzes the amendments.


Third reading The amended bill is discussed as a whole.


The bill is sent to the House of Lords, where it goes through the same steps. (If the Lords make further amendments, these will be considered by the House of Commons.),_


After both chambers agree, the bill receives royal assent and becomes an Act of Parliament to be applied as part of the Act.

Question Time This is the busiest and usually the noisiest. Part of Parliament Day For about an hour, the subject is off topic. Instead. Deputies can ask questions of government ministers. See how they can. at least in theory. forcing the government to make certain facts public and make its intentions clear. In particular, opposition deputies have the ability to make government ministers appear incompetent or perhaps dishonest. However, the questions and answers are not spontaneous. Questions to ministers should be 'handed in' (written down and placed on the table under the speaker's chair) two days in advance to give ministers time to prepare their responses. In this way, the government usually avoids major constraints. The trick, however, is to ask an unexpected "additional" question. After the minister answers the question presented, the MP may ask another question related to the minister's answer. In this way, it is sometimes possible for deputies to catch a minister off guard. Question Time was copied all over the world. It is also probably the most familiar aspect of Parliament to the general public. The vast majority of television footage of Parliament dates from this period. Newscasts usually show a half hour snippet on Wednesday when it comes to the prime minister's response.



9 From liam to t

... Legal and Spiritual Lords In addition to peers for life, there are two other types of peers in the House of Lords who do not sit there because of their right to vote, but because of their position. First, these are the twenty-six bishops of the Church of England. Second, there are the Lords of Appeal (known as the “Law Lords”), the nation's twenty or so senior judges. Traditionally, the House of Lords is the last Court of Appeal in the country. In reality, however, when the Lords are acting in that role, it is only the Law Lords who vote on the matter.

... Reform of the House of Lords In 1910, the Liberal government proposed high taxes on the wealthy. The House of Lords rejected the proposal. This refusal went against the longstanding tradition that the House of Commons controlled financial matters. The government then asked the king for an election and won. He again passed his House of Commons tax proposals, as well as a bill limiting the powers of the Lords. Again the Lords rejected both bills and again the government won another election. It was a constitutional crisis. what should happen Revolution? No. What happened was that if the Lords again rejected the same bills, who would vote in favor of the bills enough for the government to have a majority in their lords, the King would announce that he would appoint hundreds of new peers. Rather than allow their House's prestige to be destroyed in this way, the 191 Lords passed both bills, including the one limiting their own powers. From that point on, a bill passed in the House of Commons for three consecutive years could become law without the consent of the Lords. This period was further shortened in 1949.

The House of Lords A unique feature of the British parliamentary system is its hereditary element. Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords (known as “Peers”) are not elected. They are members by right. For some of them, the "right" stems from the fact that they hold an inherited title of nobility. So the House of Lords is a relic of earlier, anti-democratic times. The fact that it still exists is perhaps quintessentially British. It was allowed to survive but had to change, losing most of its power and changing its composition in the process. The House of Lords (like the monarch) has little or no real power. All proposals must have the consent of the Lords before they can become law. But the Lords' power to reject a bill passed by the House of Commons is now limited. After a period of time, which can be as long as six months, the proposal becomes law anyway, whether the Lord agrees or not. The composition of the Lords has changed since 1958, when it became possible to grant lifetime peerages through the honor system (see Chapter 7). The right to a seat in the manor does not pass to children of the same age. The peerage system for life was established as a way to find a place in public life to honor retired politicians who, while no longer as busy as MPs in the House of Commons, still wish to voice their opinions in a public forum. As of this writing, four of the last five prime ministers, as well as around 300 former ministers and other prominent politicians, have accepted the offer of lifetime age. Political parties are particularly interested in sending their senior members, who were once part of the party leadership, to the House of Lords. It's a way of rewarding them with prestige while keeping them out of the way of current party leaders in the House of Commons, where their status and reputation could create problems for party unity. Informally, this practice became known as "climbing stairs". As a result of the peerage system for life, there are over 300 people in the House of Lords who are non-aristocrats and experienced in political life: indeed, as a result of recent reforms, these life peers now form a majority in its meetings. The modern House of Lords is a forum for public discussion. Because its members are not dependent on party politics to get them into office, it is sometimes able to bring up important issues that the House of Commons has ignored. More importantly, it is where proposed new legislation is debated in great detail, much more detail than the busy House of Commons has time for - and that way irregularities or inconsistencies in these proposals can be removed before they become law. More importantly, it is argued, the Lords are a check on a government that could become too dictatorial through its control of the House of Commons. Few people in politics are fully satisfied with the current arrangement. Majority

Questions.... The State Opening of Parliament These photos show two scenes from the annual State Opening of Parliament. This is an example of a traditional ceremony that reminds MPs of their special status and 'togetherness'. In the first photo, "Black Rod", a servant of the Queen, is knocking on the door of the house

Commons and demanded MPs let the Queen in and tell them what 'her' government will do next year. The House of Commons always denies you entry. It is because. Once, in the 16th century, Charles I broke into the hall and tried to arrest some deputies. From tac n. the monarch

was not allowed into the House of Commons. Instead, MPs agree to contact the House of Lords and hear from the monarch there. That's what they do in the second photo. Traditionally, they always appear in pairs, with each pair formed by deputies from two different parties.


People agree that having two chambers of Parliament is a good idea and that this second chamber could serve a more useful function if it were composed differently (without the hereditary element). However, currently no one can agree on what the best way to reform the composition of the 2nd house would be, and despite recent reforms that have reduced the hereditary element, it remains an intriguing (but valuable) acronym in a modern state.

QUESTIONS Where would a Scottish Nationalist Party MP be likely to sit in the House of Commons? why they are different 3 Many modern parliamentarians are experts in various areas of government. Due to the complexity of modern governance, this is something the MS feel is necessary. But you could say that it also has disadvantages. What do you think these disadvantages are? I

4 When Commons decide to vote, they don't vote right away. Instead, a "dividing bell" will ring throughout the Palace of Westminster, after which MPs will have ten minutes to vote. Why ? 5 Many members of the House of Lords are hereditary aritsocrare. Why do the British tolerate such an undemocratic element in their parliamentary system?


Note the table below. You can see that the voting system used in the UK makes no sense. In the 2001 general election, Labor received just four out of ten votes, but won more than six out of ten seats in the House of Commons. It won two and a half times as many seats as the Conservative Party, despite receiving less than one and a half times as many seats.

Voices. The Liberal Democratic Party came out of the system very badly. He received almost a fifth of the votes, but won only one of thirteen seats in the Bundestag. And yet he was much happier than he had been in the past. The arithmetic absurdity of the system becomes clear when we compare the fortunes of the Liberal Democrat this time with the fortunes of the 1992 elections.

same share of the total votes, but less than half of the seats. What's happening? As is often the case with British institutions,

the apparently illogical figures are the result of history.

The system is unlike any other country in the world. The system of political representation used in Britain developed before the advent of democracy. It also developed before national issues became more important to people than local ones. In theory, the House of Commons is simply a gathering of people, each representing a specific place in the realm. Originally, it was not the concern of any government body how individual representatives were selected. It is up to the city or municipality. It was not until the 19th century that laws were enacted regarding the conduct of elections (E> The evolution of the electoral system).

.. British General Election Results 200 I Job


liberal democrat

all other parts


10.740.648 (4 1%)

2,45"4,45"3 (9%)

4'3 (63%) 26.006

8,35" 7,292 (32%) 166 (25" %)

4,8,6, '37 (18%)


" (8%)

5"°, 345"


28 (4%) 87. 6,9

votes per deputy

formal agreements

This system existed before the development of modern politics - iii- The development of electoral parties (see Chapter 6). Today, of course, almost every body votes for a candidate because he or she belongs to a particular party. 18 32 But the tradition remains that a deputy is the first and most important representative when the Great Reform Law is passed. asset from a specific place. The result of this tradition is very small counties, where the electoral system is remarkably simple. It works like this. The country is easily persuaded by dividing it into several areas of approximately equal population (about 9,000), known as constituencies. Who wants to be a deputy. Seats are up for grabs in new big cities, he has to declare himself a candidate in one of those constituencies like Birmingham and Manchester. that have not yet been represented. On election day (election day), voters go to parliament to vote. The stations are each given a single piece of paper (the ballot paper) The right to vote (the right to vote) is written with the names of candidates for this constituency (only) on it. standardized across the country. Each voter marks the name of a candidate. After the differences of opinion between the country and the people are over, the ballot papers are counted. Candidate city areas remain. II depends on the value of the property. About 5% of those with the highest number of crosses next to their name are the adult population, which now has the right to the winner and becomes a deputy under the Constitution to participate in the elections. And final point: there is no preferential election (if a voter elects more than one candidate, this ballot is “smeared” and 186 7 is not counted), there is no counting of the share of votes for the suffrage is extended [0 includes each party ( all votes cast for losing candidates are simply ignored); majority of male workers in cities no additional allocation of seats in parliament party 18 7 2 strengths In the election 2 0 0 I there were 659 constituencies and secret ballots were introduced (until 659 deputies were elected. It was called universal suffrage and from then on, voting was conducted by a show that obviously depended on the government, but in formal hands.) Conceptually, only 659 separate elections were held at the same time. Here are the results from two constituencies in 2001. 18 8 4 Taun ton Conservative Liberal Democrat Labor


Adria n Floo k 23.0 33 Jackie Ballard 22,798 Governor's Wife 8,254

Rochdale Elaina Cohen Paul Rowen Lor e Fitzsimo ns


The franchise is extended to male rural workers.

5.274 [3.75[

19,4 ° 6

Let's add up the votes received by each party in these two constituencies. We find that Liberal Democrats get more votes than Conservatives or Labor. And yet these two parties each won one seat, while the Liberal Democrats won none. This is because they did not come in first place in any of the constituencies. What matters first comes first. In fact, the system is known as a "first-past-the-post" system (an allusion to horse racing).

Formal agreements In practice, the government decides when elections are held. The law says that an election must be held at least every five years. However, the interval between elections is usually a little shorter. A party in power usually does not wait until the last possible moment. So, after just four years, the Labor government called the 2001 elections.

19 18

Women over thirty have the right to vote. 19 2 8

Women have the right to vote on the same basis as men. All adults via r tv come y-one now have {the right to vote. 1969 The minimum number of votes is reduced to 18, and candidates can now write a "political description" next to their name on the ballot. Previously, only the candidate's address could appear on the ballot.



10 Elections... Crazy Candidates You don't have to belong to any major [Q] party to run. They don't even have [Q lives in the constituency. All you need is £'00. Check out this list of 1992 election candidates for the Huntingdon election. Miss Deborah Birkhe and Green Lord Buc kcthead Gremloids Charles Cockc ll Forward to Mars Company And rew Duff Liberal Democrat Michael Flanaga n Conservcrive

Thctchente John Major Conservcnve Hu gh Sccklcman Labor David Shepheard Natural Low Pan y Lord David Sutch Official Monster Raring Loony Perty Paul Wiggin Liberal Seven of these ten candidates did not receive their money back. But there are always some people willing to compete, even though they know they have no chance of winning. Sometimes they are people fighting for a single cause that is very close to their hearts. Sometimes Y-Arc people who only like 10 are candidates for a joke. If so, they are more likely to be candidates at companies where they get a lot of publicity. The Prime Minister at the time, John Major, ran in Huntingdon. so it was a natural choice. The most famous of these "stupid" candidates was "Lord" David Sutch. He was a candidate in the same constituency as the Prime Minister in every election from 1966 to 1997. The £5.00 deposit is intended to discourage 10 hilarious contestants like 'Lord' Sutch...but they certainly add color and entertainment to the occasion.

has a very small or no majority in the House of Commons, the gap can be much smaller. After the election date is set. Anyone wishing to stand as a candidate in a constituency must make a deposit of £100 to the Returning Officer (the person responsible for conducting the election in each constituency). They get that money back if they get 1)% of the vote or more. The main branches of the party have already selected the candidates (see Chapter 6) and are paying the advances for them. However, it is not necessary to belong to a political party to be a candidate. It is a curious feature of the system that legally there are no parties. That is, there is no written law trying to define or govern them. The law admits candidates. if you want. to include a brief “political description” of themselves on the ballot. In practice, of course, most Se descriptors simply say "Conservative", "Labour" or "Liberal Democrat". But they can really say anything a candidate wants to say (I> Crazy Candidates). To be able to vote. a person must be at least eighteen years of age and registered on the electoral roll. This is prepared separately for each constituent each year. People who have moved and haven't had time to register for their new constituency can vote by mail. However, no body is obliged to vote.

The election campaign in Britain is relatively quiet. There is no tradition of big rallies or parades like in the US. However. due to intense media coverage. It would be very difficult to be in the UK at the time of an election campaign and not realize that an election was coming up. The campaign reflects the contrast between formal regulations and political reality. form allies. a different campaign takes place in each constituency. Local newspapers report on candidates; candidates themselves hold meetings; Party supporters put up posters in their windows; Local party officials spend their time recruiting (I> recruiting). There is a strict limit on the amount of money candidates can spend on their campaigns. They must provide detailed accounts of their expenses for inspection. Any attempt to improperly influence voters is prohibited. But the reality is that all these activities and regulations usually don't make much difference. Almost everyone chooses a candidate based on the party they represent, not their individual qualities or political opinions. Few people attend candidate meetings; Most people don't read local newspapers. In any case, the size of constituencies means that candidates cannot find a majority of voters, no matter how vigorously they go door-to-door.

Election Day The actual election campaign takes place at the national level. Parties spend millions of pounds on billboard and newspaper advertising. By convention, they don't get TV time like they do in the United States. Instead, they each receive a series of strictly timed “party election broadcasts”. Each party also holds a new televised conference daily. All of this puts the focus on national party figures rather than local candidates. It is only in the “edge groups” – constituencies where even a small change in voting behavior from the last time would change the outcome – can a person's qualities affect the outcome.

Election Day General elections are always held on a Thursday. They are not holidays. People have to work as usual, so polling stations are open from 7 am to 10 pm to give everyone a chance to vote. Vacations are granted only to school-aged children whose schools are used as polling stations. Each voter must vote in a designated polling station. After signing the voter registration, the voter receives a ballot. Elections in mainland Britain are always conducted very fairly. Northern Ireland, however, is a completely different story. Political tensions have had a negative impact on democratic processes for years. Things have improved since the 1960s5. but the traditional, if facetious, slogan in Ulster on election day is 'vote early and vote often' - i.e. try to vote as quickly as possible while impersonating others . After the election is over, the marked ballot papers are taken to a central location in the constituency and counted. The return officer then makes a public announcement of the votes cast for each candidate and declares the winner an MP for the electorate. This statement is one of the few times during the electoral process that shouts and applause are heard.

The result of the election is announced

II> Advertising

This is the activity that occupies most of the time of local party leaders during an election campaign. Can Vasser go door-to-door, visit as many homes as possible and ask people how they tend to vote? They rarely try to change people's minds, but if a voter is identified as "undecided", the party's candidate may try to pay a visit later. The main purpose of the propaganda seems to be that on Election Day, if necessary, transportation is offered to those posing as supporters. (This is the only form of material assistance parties can offer voters.) It also allows party officials to assess how they are doing on election day. They stand in front of polling stations and observe whether their supporters have voted. If these people don't seem to mind voting, party officials can ask them to remind them to do so. Prospecting is a lot of work for very little benefit. It's a kind of election ritual.

J0 me

10 2

10 elections II> The great television election

election night

Show! The British are generally not very fond of politics. But that doesn't bother them. political struggle. Watch the footage of Spon and General planning a military campaign in this excerpt from the Radio Times just before the 1992 general election. What a night it will be! As with all top horse racing, there is no clear favourite. Never since 1974 have the two main parties been so close. We can even keep you up all night without being able to tell who is on the wall.

In BBCI's '92' I will have a whole host of electronic wizardry - including our battlefield - to explain and illustrate what is shaping the new Parliament. By 10 pm, more than 30 million people will have voted. on Thursday, but the final judgment will be made by the five million people who vote on the fringes - and they are the only ones we show on our battlefield. Labor's goal is to color the Bauleground seats red. Conservatives' job is to keep them blue. So, sit back on your armrest and enjoy the thrill. radio times. April 19, 9 2

The post-election period has become a television extravaganza. Both the BBC and lTV will launch their programs once voting is complete. They continue throughout the night in front of millions of viewers. Certain features of these "election specials", such as the "Swingome Rer", have entered popular folklore (e-TheSlVingometer). The first thrill of the night is the race to explain. Some constituencies pride themselves on being the first to announce their results. This ensures that the cameras will be there to capture the event. If the count went smoothly, it usually happens just after 11 pm. Until midnight, after only a few results were announced. Experts will make (with the help of computers) predictions about the composition of the newly elected House of Commons. Psephology (the study of voting habits) has become very sophisticated in Britain, although experts never quite get it right. they can get pretty close. By 2 am, at least half of the constituents will have announced their results. Unless the elections were very close (as in 1974 and 1992), TV pundits can now confidently predict which party will have a majority in the House of Commons. and therefore which party leader will be prime minister. However, some constituencies may not announce their results until Friday afternoon. This is because they are very rural (mostly in Scotland or Northern Ireland). and so it takes a long time to get all the ballots together. or because the race was so close that one or more "recounts" were necessary. The phenomenon of recounts is clear evidence of the irony of the British system. In most districts, losing several thousand votes would not change the outcome. But in few. The result depends on a handful of votes. In these cases, the candidate has the right to request any number of recounts until the result is beyond doubt. The record number of recounts is seven (and the record margin of victory is just one voter).

Recent results and future Since the middle of the 20th century. The struggle to form a government was effectively a direct struggle between the Labor and Conservative parties. Generally. the north of England and most of the English inner cities bring Labor MPs back to Westmoster. while the south of England and most areas outside the inner cities have a Tory militia. Which of these two parties forms the government depends on which does better in the suburbs and towns of England. Scotland used to be good territory for Conservatives. That has changed. However. during the 1980s and the vast majority of MPs there now represent Labour. Wales has always returned more

Recent results and the future

... The Swingometer This is a device used by TV presenters on election night. Indicates the percentage change in support from one party to another since the last election, the "swing". Individual constituencies can be placed at specific points along the swingometer to show how much swing it takes to change your MP's party affiliation. Swingomctr was first popularized by Professor Raben McKenzie in BBC coverage of the 1964 election. Over the years it has become more colorful and complicated. Most people like it, but they say they get confused!

Swingometers the '970 and 199 2

Labor MP. Since the 1970s, the respective nationalist parties in both countries (see Chapter 6) have regularly won a few seats in parliament. . Traditionally, the Liberal Party has also been relatively strong in Scotland and Wales (and is sometimes referred to as the 'Celtic Fringe' party). Its modern successor, the Liberal Democratic Party (see Chapter 6), is not as limited geographically and has managed to win a few seats across Britain, with a focus on the south-west of England. Northern Ireland has always had roughly an equal proportion of Protestant Unionist and Catholic Nationalist MPs (about two-thirds of the former, a third of the latter since the 1970s). The only element of uncertainty is how many seats the most extreme (as opposed to the most moderate) parties will win on either side of this unchanging political divide (see Chapter 12).



10 elections

If an incumbent deputy is no longer able to carry out his duties, a special general election must be held in the constituency he represents. (There is no system of by-elections.) These are called by-elections and can be held at any time. They have no influence over who the government is, but are closely watched by the media and parties as indicators of the current popularity (or unpopularity) of the government. A by-election gives parties a chance to find a seat in Parliament for one of their most important people. When a parliamentarian dies, the opportunity presents itself; otherwise, a deputy from the same party must be persuaded to resign. The way an MP resigns is a fascinating example of the importance given to tradition. It is considered wrong for a deputy to simply resign; MPs represent their constituents and have no right to deprive them of that representation. So the MP who wants to resign is running for the post of trustee of the Chiltern Hundreds. This is a job with no obligations and no salary. Technically, though, it's "an office for a profit." under the crown n' {d. H. a job bestowed by the monarch with associated rewards). According to ancient practice, a person cannot be an MP and hold such an office at the same time, as Parliament must be independent of the monarch. (This is why senior civil servants and army officers cannot be MPs.) As a result, the holder of this former office is automatically disqualified from the House of Commons and the by-election can take place!

In the thirteen elections from 1945 to 1987, the Conservatives generally outperformed Labor. (I> Party performance in general elections since 1945). Although Labor won a majority on five occasions, the majority was satisfied on only two of those occasions. On the other hand, it was three times smaller that it was constantly in danger of disappearing due to injections. In the same period, the Conservatives won the majority seven times, always clearly at the beginning. In the 1992 election, the Conservatives won for the fourth consecutive time - the first time in over 160 years. What's more, they did it in the middle of an economic downturn. This left many wondering if Labor could win again. It seemed that the gomer's pendulum had stuck to the right. The Labor Party's share of the total vote has generally declined over the previous four decades, while third party support has increased since the early 1970s. Many sociologists believe that this trend is inevitable because Britain has developed a middle-class majority ( as opposed to its previous working-class majority). Many political observers were concerned about this situation. It is considered fundamental to the British system of democracy that power occasionally changes hands. Much has been said about a possible reorganization of the size of the absolute majority in the House of Commons (named after the leader of the winning party)

1945 1950

Attlee (6)

EU •

195 1

Churchill (17) Eden (60)


Macmillan (100)

1959 1964

Wilson (5)



Wilson (96)_ See More

1970 1974

(February) Wilson


(October) Wilson (3)

Heide (30)

I I Thatcher (48)


Thatcher (144)

1983 1987

Thatcher (89)



1997 2001

Blaire (167)

* Labor was the largest party but held less than half the seats.

Recent outcomes and future UK policy, for example a move to a European system of proportional representation (so that Labor could at least participate in a coalition government) or a formal union between Labor and Liberal Democrats (so that together they could defeat the conservatives). However, in 1997, the picture changed dramatically. Labor won the largest majority in the House of Commons of any party in 73 years, and the Conservative share of the total vote was the lowest for 165 years. What happened? The answer seems to be that voting habits in Britain, reflected in the weakening of the class system, are no longer tribal. There was a time when the Labor Party was seen as the political arm of the trade unions, representing the country's working class. Most working-class people voted Labor all their lives, and almost all middle-class people voted Conservative all their lives. The winning party in an election was the one that managed to win the support of the small number of 'floating voters', but Labor still did not abandon its trade union image. It is able to win as many middle-class votes as conservatives, so a middle-class majority in the population determined by sociologists (see above) does not automatically mean a conservative majority. QUESTIONS

The British electoral system is said to discriminate against smaller parties. But look again at the table at the beginning of this chapter. How come the very small parties were so much luckier to get into parliament than the (relatively large) Liberal Democrats? 2 How does the political election campaign in your country differ from the one in the UK described in this chapter? are there in the UK? Does this seem to reflect the general enthusiasm and interest in politics that exists in other times - in Britain and in your own country? I

4 Britain has “single member voters”. This means that only one deputy represents a specific group of voters (everyone in his constituency). Is this a good system? Or is it better to have several deputies representing the same area? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems? 5 Do you think the UK should adopt the voting system used in your country? Or maybe you think your country should adopt the system used in the UK? Or are the two different systems the correct ones for the two different countries? Why?


• If you can get UK TV or radio, watch or listen on the night of the next UK general election.

[ 05

10 6

To her


The organization of the police force There is no national police force in Great Britain. All officers work for one of about forty individual officers, each responsible for a specific geographic area. Originally. these were configured locally. It was only later that the central government gained some control over the MoH, which oversees them and has influence over the appointment of executives in them. In return, it provides about half of the funds to manage them. The other half comes from the municipality. The exception to this system is the Metropolitan Police. which oversees the Greater London area. The Met is under the direct control of the central government. It also exercises certain national police functions, such as B. Registering all crimes and criminals in England and Wales and compiling a register of missing persons. New Scotland Yard is the famous building where the Department of Criminal Investigation (CID) is located.

The police and the public There was a time when there was a supposedly British policeman in every British tourist brochure. His odd-looking helmet and the fact that he wasn't carrying a weapon made him a unique symbol for tourists. The image of the friendly British "Bobby" with his fatherly manner was also nationally known and popularized by TV series such as Dixon of Dock Green (0) Images of the palice: past and gift) . This positive image was not a complete myth. The policing system was based on each police officer having his own "tact", a specific neighborhood in which it was his duty to patrol. He mostly did this on foot or sometimes by bicycle. Local resident Bobby was a familiar figure on the streets, a comforting presence people could trust completely. In the 1960s, the situation began to change in two ways. First, as a reaction to an increasingly motorized society and thus increasing motorized crime, the police themselves began to patrol with cars. As a result, individual officers have become distant figures and are no longer the familiar faces they once were. A sign of this change was the new television crime drama Z Cars. This program portrayed police officers as people with real problems and flaws, who didn't always behave in the usual polite and reassuring manner. Some officers were relieved to be portrayed as ordinary people. However, the comparatively negative image of the police portrayed by the program caused an uproar and several senior police officers complained to the BBC. At the same time, the police were increasingly confronted with public demonstrations by the activities of a generation that had no experience of war and therefore no obvious enemy figure on which to focus its youthful feelings of defiance. These young people began to see the police as a symbol of everything they didn't like about society. Cops were no longer known as "bobbies" but became "fuzz" or "cops" or "pigs". Since the mid-20th century, the police force in Britain has lost much of its positive image. A lost child is still advised to go to a police officer, but the sight of one no longer offers general safety. Back in the 1980s

Crime and Criminal Procedure

We have a huge number of cases where it was discovered that police officers .. The Stefan Kizsko case lied and cheated to convict people of crimes (c- February 18, 1992, a man who married Stefan Kizsko). As a result, the confidence in the honesty and incorruptibility of having spent the previous sixteen years of his life in prison for police duty has been eroded. The murder charge was cleared. Even so, there's still a lot of public sympathy for proving he didn't do it to the police. It is likely that they are doing increasingly difficult work and are actually committing the crime. difficult circumstances. The assumption persists that their role is to serve large numbers of people rather than to be government agents. Dismissed British officers often still added members of the public as "sir" or "ma'am". Prisons Having served several years in prison for crimes, they feel it is important for the police to set a sentence of 10 arrests. The most famous of communities with locals, and the expression “community police” is that this was “the guild of four” and is now fashionable. Some officers even started patrolling on foot, 'the Birmi n gham Six', again both groups. In general, the police-public ratio of people convicted of terrorist attacks in the UK is quite favorable relative to some other European attacks. Anyway, former countries. UK police still do not carry guns Normal court rulings were changed when it became clear that the duty of the police (although all police stations have stockpiles of guns).

Crime and criminal procedure There is a widespread feeling among the British public that crime is on the increase. However, the numbers on this subject are notoriously difficult to interpret. One reason is that not all real crimes are necessarily reported. According to official data, the crime of rape increased by more than 50% between 1988 and 1992. But these numbers represent an increase in the number of victims willing to report a rape, not an actual increase in rape cases. .. Images of the Police: Past and Present

The traditional image: Dixon of DockGreen imparting fatherly wisdom to television audiences in the 1960s.

The modern image: A scene from the popular 1990s television series The Bill.

acted inappropriately (for example, falsified evidence from the IR notebooks or failed to disclose key evidence). Public trust in the police has waned. In the case of the alleged killers, a certain public sympathy remained. The officers involved may have been angry, but they were trying to catch the terrorists. The Kizsko case was different. He did not belong to any illegal organization. His only "crime" was being in the wrong place at the wrong time. He too conformed to a stereotype, making himself an easy victim of prejudice. He was of below average intelligence and had an odd name, so a jury... probably sees him as a potential killer.


10 8

I I the law

... Caution! "You don't have to say anything unless you want to, but what you say can be proved." These words are familiar to almost everyone in Britain. You can be heard in thousands of police dramas on television. They long ago formed what is technically known as a warning, which must be read to an arrested person to make the arrest legal. But in 1999+ the UK government ruled that the "right to silence" included in the warning made it too easy for criminals. This right meant that an arrested person's refusal to answer police questions could not be used as evidence against him. But now you can. To comply with the new law, the wording of the notice had to be changed. The new formula is: "You don't have to say anything. If you fail to mention something now that you will later raise in your defense, the state may decide that your failure to mention it strengthens the case against you now. Everything you say is recorded and can be used as evidence if you are brought to trial. Ctvtl groups in the UK are upset by this change. They say it is too difficult for many of those arrested to understand and that it is not fair to encourage people to immediately deny the allegations about which they don't yet have details.They also fear it will encourage false confessions.

... Is crime rising in Britain? The British believe that crime is increasing in Great Britain, but it is impossible to give an absolutely reliable answer to this question. The numbers vary from year to year. In 1993, for example, the total number of recorded crimes in Greater London fell by around 10%. And the homicide rate is no higher or lower than it was in the second half of the 19th century. However, there is no doubt that certain types of crime have increased significantly in the last quarter of the 20th century. Crimes involving firearms (firearms, rifles here) are an example, as the graph shows.

Police recorded firearm offenses in England and Wales 12,000







,.,.1 ~l

Property damage Theft Violence against the person

Source: Crime Statistics, Ministry of the Interior

Despite that . it is generally believed to have been in the last quarter of the 20th century. the number of crimes has increased (!> Is crime increasing in Britain?). And crime appears to have risen sharply. This was associated with a lack of confidence in the police's ability to catch criminals. In the early 1990s, private security companies were among the fastest growing businesses in the country. Another response to the perceived situation has been the growth of Neighbor ur Hood Watch programs. They try to educate people on crime prevention and encourage people in a given neighborhood to be on the lookout for suspects. In 1994, the government even considered helping members of these programs organize patrols. There was also a certain impatience with the rules of criminal procedure that the police and courts have to work by. Of course, the police are not above the law. When they arrest someone on suspicion of committing a crime, they must follow certain procedures. For example. unless they receive special permission, they cannot detain a person for more than twenty-four hours without formally charging him with a crime. Even after they have accused someone. You need permission to detain that person (ie keep them in jail) until the case goes to court. In 1994, public concern that criminals were "getting away with it" led the government to make all the controversial changes to the law (0 Caution!).

The legal system...

victims of crime and

All registered crimes %0

5 16 IS 20 H

USA Canada Australia Netherlands Spain West Germany England and Wales France Scotland Belgium Norway Finland Switzerland Northern Ireland

car thefts ]0

% 0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5


Quelle: Inrernational Home Office Crime Survey

The court system The court system in England and Wales is contradictory in civil and criminal matters (as in North America). In criminal cases, there is no coroner who is trying to find out the real truth about what happened. Formally speaking, it is not up to any court to ascertain “the truth”. Their job is simply to decide "yes" or "no" to a specific allegation (in criminal cases, a specific person is guilty of a specific crime), after hearing arguments and evidence from both sides (in criminal cases, these sides are called defense and prosecution). There are basically two types of dishes. More than 90% of all cases are tried in magistrates' courts. Each city has one of these courts, where a body of judges (usually three) decide. In cases where they have determined that someone is guilty of a crime, they can also impose a penalty. This can amount to a year in prison or a fine, although if it is a person's "first offence" and the crime is not serious, it often does not impose any penalty (t> This court's verdict is . . .) . The Magistrates' Courts are another example of the importance of amateurism in British public life, Magistrates also known as Justices of the Peace (IPs). they are not trained lawyers. They are just ordinary people of good repute who have been appointed to office by a local committee. They receive no salary or remuneration for their work (although they do receive expenses). Inevitably, they tend to come

How many victims? One way to assess the level of crime is to survey people and ask if they have been victims of crime. On the left are some results from a survey in [ 990, which interviewed 2,000 people in several countries. The numbers show the percentage of respondents who indicated that they were victims.

.. The verdict of this court is . .. If it is someone's first offense and it is a minor crime, even a guilty person is often unconditionally acquitted. He or she will be released with impunity, the next step on the ladder is a parole court. This means that the culprit will be released, but if he commits another crime within a certain time frame. the first offense is counted, he may also be placed on probation. This means that regular meetings with a social worker must take place. A very common form of punishment for minor offenses is a fine. which means that the culprit must pay a sum of money. Another possibility is that the convict is sentenced to a certain number of hours of community service. Anywhere possible. Judges and judges try not to arrest people. That costs old money. the country's prisons are already overcrowded and prisons have a reputation as 'schools for crime'. Even people who are sent to prison often do not serve the full term they were sentenced to. O)” will receive a “waiver” of his punishment for “good behavior”. There is no death penalty in Britain. except treason n . It was abolished for all other crimes in 1969, although public opinion polls often show a major downside to its return. The majority of MEPs have always been against it. For assassins. However, there is a mandatory life sentence. "Life" does not necessarily mean life.

1° 9


1 10

II The Law... Some terms related to the legal system were acquitted and considered innocent by the court

to deposit a sum of money guaranteed by someone in the name of 1 person accused of a crime so that he can remain at liberty until the trial. If he or she doesn't show up at Con. the person who has a "permanent deposit" has to pay the money. found guilty by the court

accused party}' contesting a claim in court: the person accused of a crime in custody awaiting trial is one of the parties to a legal proceeding. Because of the adversarial system, there must always be two panics in a case: one to file a claim and one to contest that claim. Author of part}' making a complaint on coun. In almost all criminal cases, the perpetrator is the police. Judge the decision of the Council

A typical courtroom scene showing the

Judge, jury and a witness being questioned by a lawyer (cameras are not blocked in the courtroom)

of the more affluent strata of society and in past times. His prejudices were very obvious. For example, they were particularly tough on people convicted of poaching (hunting on private land), even though these people sometimes had to poach to put food on their families' tables. Nowadays, however, care is taken to ensure that JPs are recruited as widely as possible in society. Even serious criminal cases are heard for the first time before a district court. In these cases, however, JPs need only decide that there is prima facie evidence against the accused (in other words, that it is possible that he or she is guilty)'). O)” then refer the case to a higher court. In most cases, this is a Crown Court, where a professional lawyer acts as judge and the decision of guilt or innocence is made by a jury. The juries consist of twelve people who are chosen at random from the list of voters. They receive no payment for their services and are obligated to fulfill this obligation. For a judgment to be made, at least some of them must agree. If not, the judge must declare his conviction and the case must start over with another jury. A convicted person can appeal to the Court of Criminal Appeals (general) in London to have the conviction overturned (declared 'not guilty') or to have the sentence reduced (ie sentence). The highest court in Britain is the House of Lords (see Chapter 9). The judge's duty during a trial is to act as arbitrator while the prosecution and defense present their cases and interview witnesses, and decide which evidence is admissible and which is not (what is admissible and what is admissible). t to consider b), the jury). It is also, of course, the judge's job to punish (known as "declaring punishment") the culprits.

The profession of lawyer

The legal profession There are two different types of lawyers in the UK. One of them is a lawyer. Anyone who needs a law has to go to one of these. They handle most of their clients' legal matters, including document preparation (eg wills, divorce papers and contracts). Communication with other parties. and representing its clients' cases before the district courts. However, barristers have only been able to represent cases in higher courts since 1994. When the case is to be tried in either of the two, the barrister usually engages the services of the other type of barrister - a barrister. The sole function of lawyers is to represent cases in court. The training of the two types of lawyers is very different. All attorneys must pass the bar exam. They study for this exam while “working” with established law firms, where they do much of the day-to-day junior work until they qualify. Lawyers must appear at one of the four Inns of Court in London. These ancient institutions are modeled in some way on the colleges of Oxbridge (see Chapter 14). For example, although there are some lectures, a lawyer in a robe and wig whose only requirement to be present is dinner must be brought into court a certain number of nights each quarter. After four years, trainees take the exam. If approved, they are "called to the bar" and recognized as lawyers. However, they still can't... Department of Justice? a case before a crown court. You can only do this after a few more years. In fact, there is nothing like it in years of working with a senior lawyer, after which the most capable is Great Britain. The things such minisof apply from them to "pick up silk". Those whose applications are accepted in other countries can put the letters QC (Queen's Counsel) after their names. are shared by various authorities, particularly the homeland. The huge department that runs the prisons, most lawyers and most lawyers actually go to university and they oversee the police, but they don't necessarily go to law school there. This arrangement is the office of the Lord Chancellor, who is typically British (see Chapter 14). oversees the appointment of judges. Different styles of training reflect the different worlds in which judges and other law enforcement officials live. two kiuds of lawyers live in , and also the different skills they develop. Lawyers have to deal with the realities of everyday life... Law in the Scottish world and its problems. Most of their work is done outside the courts, which Scotland has its own legal system. They often become specialists in the details of specific areas of law set apart from the rest of the UK. Lawyers, on the other hand, live a rarer existence. Kingdom . While it also uses an adversarial system of legal procedures, these tend to come from the upper echelons of society. ur, the basis of their law is closer to Romanian and Dutch law. Names are subject to certain legal regulations. For example, they are not allowed to speak to many officers in Scotland who are among their clients, or their clients' witnesses, except in the presence of the solicitor who hired them, also unlike in England. They are specialists in General and Wales. A very striking feature is that there are three, not just two, principles of law rather than details, and you get as many verdicts as possible. As we refer to as "guilty" special eloquence when speaking in public. If they are innocent. A jury may take a case to court, applying, like judges, the archaic toga-and-wig verdict of "not proven," ostensibly emphasizing the impersonal majesty of the law. means that the accused cannot be punished exclusively among lawyers, but cannot be appealed. Once named, it is also almost impossible to be completely absolved of guilt.

I i i

i i2

I I the law

for them to be released. This can only be achieved through a resolution by both Houses of Parliament, and this has never happened before. Also, their retirement age is later than in most other professions. They also receive very high salaries. These things are considered necessary to ensure independence from interference by the state or other parties. However, the result of their education and absolute confidence in their jobs is that they are often people of great knowledge and intelligence. Some judges seem to have difficulty understanding the problems and circumstances of ordinary people and disagree with general public opinion. The judgments and opinions they issue in court sometimes make headlines because they are so spectacularly out of date. (The inability of some of them to understand the meaning of racial equality is an example of this. A senior Old Bailey judge once, in the 1980s, referred to blacks as "nig-nogs" and some Asians as "Sikhs". homicides" in one case are involved") QUESTIONS

The public's perception of British police officers has changed over the last thirty years. How has that changed and why do you think it has? 2 It is a fundamental principle of the UK legal system that you are innocent until proven guilty. However, there are miscarriages of justice. How did the ones described in this chapter come about? 3 What are the main differences between the legal system in your country and the UK? Is there such a thing as the "right to silence"? Are there unpaid "amateur" lawyers similar to justices of the peace? What kind of training do lawyers go through? What do you see as the strengths and weaknesses of the British system in your country?

4 Britons believe there is more crime in the UK than there used to be. What would be the reason? It is true? Do you think the UK is a 'safe' or 'dangerous' place? What about your own country – has crime increased there or do people think it has?” 5 Many people in Britain argue that imprisonment is an expensive and ineffective form of punishment. Do you agree with this view? What alternative forms of punishment used in the UK or your country do you think are better, if any?


• There are many contemporary British writers who focus on crime and detection, including Colin Dexter, whose books (such as The Dead of Jericho, Last Bus to Waodstock and The Wench is Deod) feature Inspector Morse. (Many of them have been adapted for television.) PD Jams and Ruth Rendell are two highly regarded crime writers.

me me

12 International Relations

The relationship between any country and the rest of the world can reveal a lot about that country.

The End of the Empire The map below shows the British Empire in 1919, at its greatest extent. By this time, however, it was less an empire and more a confederation. At the same international conference at which Great Britain acquired new possessions (formerly Germany) after the Treaty of Versailles, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa were represented separately from Great Britain.

The real dismantling of empire would occur in the twenty-five years after World War II, and with the loss of empire came a loss of power that has weighed heavily on us. Today the British armed forces can no longer act unilaterally without reference to the international community. Two events illustrate this. First Suez. 1956, Egypt. took over the Suez Canal by the international company of Great Britain and France without prior agreement. british and french

• £

Looking at Germany The accepted wisdom in modern Britain is that the education systems of many other countries are better than Britain's. especially the German system. Queen Victoria is known to have commented on this in the 19th century. But of course, this was back when Britain ruled the world, so who cared? Nowadays. The British, however, take their shortcomings seriously. In 1991, The Economist reported that pilgrimages to Germany by British educators, ministers of education and businesspeople had become so popular that the British Embassy in Bonn hired a full-time staff member to look after these visitors and put them in touch with experts on right education. .




14Education ~

school days


Check out these comparisons.

Despite recent changes, it is a feature of the UK system that there is comparatively little centralized control or consistency. For example, education is managed not by one but by three separate departments: the Department for Education and Employment is solely responsible for England and Wales - Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own departments. Indeed, in England and Wales, education has traditionally been seen as separate from 'training'. and the two areas of responsibility have only recently been combined into one department. None of these central authorities exercise much control over what actually happens in the country's educational institutions. They limit themselves to guaranteeing the availability of teaching, dictate and implement its global organization and establish general learning objectives (which they enforce through a system of inspectors) until the end of compulsory education. The central government does not prescribe a detailed program of study or which books and materials to use. It tells approximately what students should learn, but only occasionally gives advice on how to learn it. Nor does it prescribe the exact times of the school day, the exact dates of vacations, or the exact age at which a child should begin full-time schooling. She also doesn't manage an institution's finances, she just decides how much money is given to her. He does not himself establish or oversee the assessment of exams that older youths take. In general, as much detail as possible is left to each institution or local education authority (LEA, a branch of local government). One of the reasons for this "baseline" level of independence is that the system was influenced by the public school tradition that a school is its own community. Most schools develop a sense of uniqueness, at least to some extent. For example, many have their own uniforms for students. Many, particularly those outside the state system, have alumni associations. It is considered desirable (even necessary) that each school should have its own hall large enough to accommodate each student, for daily meetings and other occasional ceremonies. Universities, although funded by the government, have even more autonomy. Everyone has complete control over what they teach, how they teach it, who they accept as students, and how they assess those students.

Age of compulsory full-time schooling (1989) 16 years old -~---_----.--.

15 --I--a-_ ~I--__'-I

14 -I--I--A-LF-L~I-__'-I



I 2 -I--I--a-lf-ll-I-__.-I

II 10


9 -1---1---1--a-&-I-I1--I 8 -I---1--&-Se-II-I--I--I 7 -I-- I--I--I--I--&---I 6 ----&----L------ -I









Average number of weeks in the school year (excluding short "half" intervals)


35 40

belgium france germany italy

Netherlands Spain Sweden United Kingdom

_ _

Source: Selected national education systems (Deportation of Education and Science) Education is compulsory for most years in the UK and the school year is the longest. The number of hours in the school week is not below the European average. But look at t-Befcreand after school.

Traditionally, learning to style for its own sake and not for any specific practical purpose has had a comparatively high value in the UK. Compared to most other countries, there has been a relatively strong emphasis on the quality of the person producing education (as opposed to the qualities of the skills they produce). the balance

recent developments

changed in the last quarter of the 20th century (e.g.... before and after school there is now a high level of concern about the degree of heterogeneity) but look at these comparisons which cover much of the public debate. attendance of education outside the compulsory years. both about helping people develop useful knowledge and skills and about how education can help create a better society - for four-year-olds who care more about social justice than efficiency. Kindergarten (1989) This approach has far-reaching implications for many aspects of the % 0 10 40 60 80 90 100 educational system. First, it influenced the general style of Belgian teaching, which tended to prioritize development in Denmark rather than acquiring factual knowledge and learning how France applies that knowledge to specific tasks. Because of this, young Britons in Germany don't seem to have to work as hard as their counterparts in Italy or other European countries. Primary school children don't have as much formal homework to do as they do in the Netherlands, and university students in the UK have fewer class hours than mainland students. (On the other hand, they get more personal attention from full-time students in their work). A second effect was the emphasis on academic ability and training in the year following practical ability (despite English anti-intellectualism - see End of Compulsory Education, Chapter 5). This resulted in high quality education for the intellectual and academic (1985-86) (at upper secondary level and at university % 0 20 40 60 80 100) with comparatively little attention (Q to the educational needs of Belgium from the rest. Denmark O The approach Traditional education, together with the rejection of a centralized French authority, also helps to explain why the British school system became a German national curriculum (a national specification of learning objectives) in Italy much later than in other European countries. its purpose is so vague and universal, it is difficult to specify its elements.For Spain and the UK, it is the same reason why UK schools and universities tend to place such a high value on sport Sources of Unity: Education selected theory can reinforce this emphasis. The success of Sporring increases reputation systems (establishment of an institution. Until the last quarter of the 20th century. and ci ence), key figures and Europe in numbers of certain sports at some universities (mainly Oxford and Cambridge) and Medi. It seems that the British, because of their athletic abilities, were sometimes accepted as students who were relatively unenthusiastic about their athletic abilities (although, unlike the United States, this education was practiced at an international level). if it's not something the practice has always been unofficial) what they have to do.

Recent developments Some of the many changes that took place in British education in the second half of the 20th century simply reflected the wider social process of increasing equality. Elitist institutions that set the standard first no longer set the tone and are less elitist. In other cases, changes were the result of government policies. Prior to 1965, most children in the country had to take an exam at the end of elementary school, around age eleven. If I




14 Education




,,",,' ,,,.,,,,,,,,, ., ,,,,,


The ll r parenting



".t,,J I'~,,~'" I ~G.t..

The 994 letter to parents explaining changes in the education system

... Learning for Its Own One effect of the traditional British emphasis on academic learning over practical training can be seen in the way people qualify for certain occupations. In many cases, this is not traditionally done at universities; instead, people go to specialized institutions separate from each university. You can study architecture at university, but most architects get their skills > profession from their own architecture school. You can study law at university, but that alone does not qualify you as a lawyer (see Chapter II). You cannot get a teaching qualification by attending a regular course - most teachers got their qualifications from teacher training schools until recently. Schools were generally not involved in helping people gain qualifications for trades such as masonry or carpentry or machine operators.

if they passed that exam, they went on to a secondary school, where they were taught academic subjects to prepare them for college, trades, managerial positions, or other highly skilled occupations; if they failed, they went to a modern secondary school, where teaching was more practical and technical. Many people argued that it was wrong for one's future life to be decided at such a young age. Children who attended "high school" tended to be seen as "failures". It was also noticeable that the children who passed this test (known as "eleven plus") were almost all from middle-class families. The system seemed to reinforce class differences. It was also unfair because the proportion of children attending secondary school varied greatly from community to community (from 15% to 40%). By the 1960s, SE's criticism was accepted by most of the public. In the following decade, the division into Gymnasium and Realschule was changed. These days, most eleven-year-olds attend the same local school. These schools are known as comprehensive schools. (The decision to make this change was in the hands of the LEAs, so it didn't happen all over the country at the same time. In fact, there are still one or two places where the old system is still in place.) However, so is the overarching system. it has its critics. Many people felt that parents should have more options and disliked the uniformity of education for teenagers. In addition, there is a widespread feeling that the educational level dropped in the 1980s and that the average 11-year-old in Britain is significantly less literate and fewer in number than their European counterparts. Beginning in the late 1980s, two major changes were introduced by the government. The first of these was the establishment of a national curriculum. For the first time in British education, there is now a set of learning objectives for each compulsory school year and all state schools are obliged to work towards these objectives. The National Curriculum is being rolled out gradually and will not be fully operational in all parts of the UK until the late 1990s. relevant government agency. These "subsidized" schools receive their funding directly from the central government. However, this does not mean that there is more central control. As long as they meet the basic requirements, sponsored schools don't have to ask anyone how to spend their money. A final point about ongoing decentralization: there are really three, not one, national curriculum. There is one for England and Wales, one for Scotland and one for Northern Ireland. The organization of subjects and the details of learning objectives vary slightly from one to another. There is even a difference between England and Wales. Only in the latter is the Welsh language part of the curriculum.

School life... A nation that uses Aries ofign? The introduction of the national curriculum must also have an impact on the content of teaching. At the lower level does the earth revolve around the sun or primary does this mean a greater emphasis on what is known as the sun revolving around the earth? This was one of the issues of the Three Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic). At higher levels, the representative sample of 13,000 adults means a greater emphasis on science and technology. A contradiction was raised in a study carried out by the European Commission in 1993 using the traditional British approach to education. the habit of paying relatively close attention to the arts. Presumably what in Europe and the humanities (which produce the complete human being) says that the Union ranked last in Union knowledge and relatively little in science and technology (which develops the basic astronomical and evolutionary facts! One-third of respondents in the ability to carry out certain occupations). When Britain wrote this Sun-Earth issue, the prevailing view at the time was that Britain needed scientists and engineers (one nation wrong, and don't half of them have ignorants?).

School life There is no national system of kindergartens (ie preschools). In some areas, kindergartens are annexed to elementary schools, in others there is no such provision. Many children do not begin full-time education until they are five years old and enter elementary school. Almost all schools are primary schools only or secondary schools only, the latter being generally larger. Almost all schools have a five-day week without part-time classes and are closed on Saturdays. The day starts at or shortly before midnight and ends between three and four, a little later for older children. The lunch break usually lasts about an hour and a half. Almost two-thirds of students receive lunch provided by the school. Parents pay, except for the 15% who are deemed poor enough to be free. Other kids don't go home for lunch or eat sandwiches. Teaching methods vary, but the most common involves a balance between formal instruction with the teacher at the front of the classroom and activities where children work in small groups around a table with the teacher's supervision g. In primary schools, children are usually taught by a class teacher who teaches all subjects. Between the ages of seven and eleven, children must take national tests in English, math and science. In secondary schools, students have different teachers for different subjects and are not given regular homework.

... The school year Schools generally divide the school year into three terms, which begin in early September. fall semester





(about 2

public holiday (approx. 2nd

Holiday (approx. 6th



christmas vacation

spring semester

In addition, all schools have a “half semester” (=half vacation) lasting a few days or a week in the middle of each semester.


find out how long it takes the earth to go around the sun. More spectacularly, nearly half thought that early humans lived at the same time as dinosaurs. These results reinforced the feeling in Britain that people's basic scientific knowledge is unacceptably poor. But the results of the EC survey were not depressing for British scientists and educators. In biology, the British seemed to have comparative knowledge (although they were not yet at the top of the European league). The survey also showed that, contrary to what one might think, scientists are highly respected.




t a bducauon

As children grow older, they are more likely to be grouped according to their perceived ability, sometimes for certain subjects only, sometimes for all subjects. However, some schools teach all subjects in mixed classes. The right and wrong of this practice has been a source of heated debate for several decades and varies greatly from school to school and area to area.

Public examinations The organization of examinations which school-aged children take at around the age of 15 is an example of both the lack of uniformity in British education and the traditional 'hands-off' approach taken by British governments. First, these exams are not set by the government, but by independent examining boards. There are several of them. Everywhere except Scotland (which has its own unique council) each school or LEA decides which juries their students sit on. Some schools even register their students for exams in more than one chamber exams. Second, chambers publish a separate curriculum for each subject. There is no uniform Abitur or school leaving certificate. Some cameras offer a wider range of subjects. In practice, almost all students take exams in English, math, and a science subject, and most also take a technology exam and a foreign language exam, usually French. Many students take exams in three or more additional subjects. Thirdly, exams have nothing to do with the school days themselves. They are separate from the school system. There's nothing to stop a sixty-five year old from making a few of these for fun. In practice, of course, the vast majority of people who take these exams are schoolchildren, but formally they register for these exams as individuals, not students of a specific grade level. An example of the independence of examining boards is the decision by one of them (the Northern Examinations Board) in 1992 to include certain popular television programs in its English literature curriculum. This went against the spirit of government education policy at the time. The idea of ​​100,000 schoolchildren settling in to watch the Australian soap opera Neighbors as part of their homework made government ministers very angry, but there was nothing they could do about it.

Education beyond sixteen n At sixteen, everyone is free to leave school if they wish. With Britain's newfound enthusiasm for more education (and because there aren't enough unskilled jobs available), far fewer 16-year-olds are heading straight into a job than they used to. However, about a third of them still use this option. Most do not find employment immediately, and many participate in apprenticeship programs that combine on-the-job training with a part-time university course.

Education over sixteen n

... exams and qualifications GCSE = General Certificate of Secondary Education. The test is taken by most 15- to 16-year-olds in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Grades are given separately for each subject. The syllabi and examination methods used by the various Examination Boards have different uniform grading systems, all graded from A to G. Grades of A, Ba and C are considered "good" grades SCE = Scottish Ceruficate of Education O Scottish equivalent of GCSE These exams are administered by the Scottish Examinauons Board as a whole Grades are given in numbers (I = best) A Levels = Advanced Levels SCE education 'Higher s' = The Scottish equivalent of A-levels GNVQ = General Nation al Vocation al Qualification Courses and exams in Vocational Die}' are divided into five levels, with the lowest level being GCSEs/SCEs and thi corresponding to rd level to Avlevels.Z'H ighers.GNVQ courses are most commonly studied in Continuing Education Colleges, but more and more schools are also offering them.

Degree: A qualification from a university. (Other qualifications gained after secondary school are commonly referred to as 'certificate' or 'diploma'). Students who complete a first degree are referred to as undergraduates. When they obtain a degree, they are referred to as Graduales. MOSl people receive awards that are given in different classes. They are: Class I (known as .a first ') Class IU ('a 2 ,1' or 'one second higher') Class IUI ('a 2 ,2 ' or 'a second lower') Class III ('a second lower') 2 ,2 ' or 'one second lower') Class III ('the 3rd') A student who is under one of these obtains a passing grade [i.c. no honorary title). Bachelor: The general term for a first degree, usually BA (= Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (= Bachelor of Science). Master's: The general term for a second degree (graduate degree), most commonly an MA or MSc. However, at Scottish universities these titles are used for first degrees. Doctorate: The highest academic degree. This usually (but not everywhere) has the title of PhD (= Doctor of Philosophy). The duration of a doctorate varies, but is generally calculated with a full-time study lasting more or less three years.

... The growth of higher education In 1960 there were less than 25 universities in the whole of Great Britain. In 1980 there was more than for tj-. and now there are well over one hundred institutes with university status.

Nineteen to twenty-two years of age in full-time education %

35 30 25

20 15 10


• EC average • Great Britain

Sources: Europe in Figures, National Statistical Office and KeyData

In the last quarter of the 20th century, there has been a huge increase in educational opportunities for... sixth graders that age and older. The word "form" was the usual word. About half of those who remain in full-time education have to leave their school to publicly describe a class of pupils, either because there is no sixth grade ( I> Sixth schools b)' some state schools were occupied. with the induction form) or because it doesn't teach the subjects you want, and goes to one of the national curricula that has Sixth-form College or College of Futh er Education. It is increasingly common to refer to "years". many complete vocational training courses for specific professions and careers. However, "Forma" was unfaithful. Recent governments have sought to increase Sally's availability, which has been maintained in the phrase "sixth course of its kind and its prestige (which used to be comparatively"), referring to those students who study beyond the age limit). of sixteen.



14 Education Ii> The Open University

This is a development in education in which Britain can claim to be a world leader. It was released in J 969. It allows people who don't have the opportunity to be normal "students" to pursue a degree. Its courses are taught via television, radio, and specially written textbooks. Its students work with tutors, to whom they send their written assignments and with whom they later discuss them, either in meetings or by correspondence. In the summer, they have to attend short courses in the dormitory that last about a week.

In England and Wales there is more specialization than in most other countries for those who remain in education and study conventional academic subjects. Typically, a student spends two full years studying just three subjects, usually related to preparing for the Abitur (or exams and qualifications), although this is something else that could change in the near future. The independence of British educational institutions is most evident at universities. You decide who you want to include in your courses. No one has the right to higher education. Universities typically select students based on their high school diploma results and an interview. Those with better exam scores are more likely to be accepted. But, in principle, nothing prevents a university from accepting a student who does not have a high school diploma and, conversely, a student with high marks in several high school diplomas is not guaranteed a place on the course. The offer of higher education increased significantly in the second half of the 20th century (c- The growth of higher education). However, finding a university place is not easy. Universities only accept the best students. For this reason, but also due to the relatively high degree of personal supervision of students, which is possible due to the low student-teacher ratio, almost all students complete their studies at universities - and in one case in very short notice! In England, Wales and Northern Ireland it takes more than three years for modern languages ​​and certain vocational courses alone. In Scotland, four years is the norm for most subjects. Another reason for the low dropout rate is that "full-time" really means full-time. A large proportion of students live 'on campus' (or, in Oxford and Cam Bridge, 'on college') or in close quarters, which means that the student is surrounded by a universal atmosphere. However, the expansion of higher education puts pressure on these characteristics. More students means more government spending. The government responded by abolishing the student grant, which at one point covered most of a student's expenses during the thirty-week academic year. Also, most students have to pay fees. As a result, many M or E students cannot afford to live away from home. In 1975, it was estimated that 80% of all college students were non-native speakers. This percentage is getting smaller and smaller. Furthermore, more than a third of students now have a part-time job, meaning they cannot devote as much time to their studies. Another consequence of the increase in the number of students without a corresponding increase in budgets is that the student/employee ratio has become higher and higher. All these developments threaten to reduce the traditionally high quality of British university education. They also threatened to reduce their availability to students from low-income families.

University College, Oxford

Education beyond the age of sixteen

Types of higher education There are no significant official or legal differences between the different types of higher education institutions in the country. But it is possible to discern some broad categories.

. Oxbr id gc This name refers to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, founded in the Middle Ages. They are associations of semi-independent colleges, with each college having its own team known as "Fellows". Most colleges have their own cafeteria, library and chapel and can accommodate at least half of their students. Fellows teach university students individually or in very small groups (known as "Tutorials" in Oxford and "Supervisions" in Cambridge). Oxbridge has the lowest student-employee ratio in the UK. Lectures and laboratory work are organized at the university level. In addition to the University Libraries, there are the two University Libraries, both of which have a statutory right to a free copy of any book published in the UK. Prior to 1970, all Oxbridge colleges were single-sex (mostly men). ) Now most admit both sexes.

• The ancient Scottish universities In 1600, Scotland had four universities. They were Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and St. Andre ws. The latter is similar to Oxbridge in many ways. Yes. while the other three are more like middle-class universities (see below) as most students live at home or find their own rooms in the city. In general, the pattern of study is closer to the continental than the English tradition - there is less specialization than at Oxbridge.

• Early 9th Century English Universities Durham University was founded in 1832 . Its university accommodation arrangements are similar to those at Oxbridge, but academic affairs are organized at the university level. The University of London began in 1836 with just two colleges. Since then, many more have been added, scattered widely across the city, so that each college (mostly non-resident) is almost a separate university. The central organization is responsible for little more than examinations and awarding of diplomas.

• The old bourgeois universities ('redbrick') During the 19th century, in the new industrial cities like Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds, a number of institutes of higher education sprang up, mainly with a technical focus - things were made from local material. often brick, as opposed to the bricks of older universities (hence the name "Redbrick"). They only catered to locals. At first they prepared students for London University degrees, but later gained the right to award their own degrees, becoming universities themselves. In the mid-20th century, they began to accept students from across the country.

• The new citizen universities Originally they were technical universities founded by municipalities in the first half of the 20th century. College entrance took place on television.....the waves. The first wave took place in the mid-1960s when ten of them (eg Aston in Birmingham, Salford near Manchester and Strathclyde in Glasgow) were promoted in this way. Then, in the early 1970s, another 30 became 'polytechnics', which meant that they could not only continue with their previous degrees, but also teach degrees (degrees are awarded by a national body). In the early 1990s, most of them (and a few other colleges) became universities. Its most notable feature is flexibility in terms of study regimes, including 'sandwich' courses (ie studies interrupted by periods outside training). They are now all funded by the central government.

• Campus universities These are purpose-built institutions in the countryside but close to cities. Examples are East Anglia, Lancaster, Sussex and Warwick. They have on-site accommodation for most of their students and have attracted students from across the country since their inception, particularly in the early 1960s. (Many were known as student protest centers in the late 1960s and early 1970s.) They tend to emphasize relatively 'new' academic disciplines such as social sciences and use these more than other teaching universities in small groups, often as designated 'seminars'.

Warwick University, a campus university




14 Education


What can you say about trends in the UK education system after reading this chapter? Is it moving towards greater or lesser uniformity? More or less offer before and after obligatory schooling? Do you prefer to focus on purely academic or more practical matters? 2 Here are the ten subjects that, according to England's national curriculum, must be taught in the first three years of secondary school: English, Mathematics (Maths), science, technology, history, geography, a modern foreign language (French is more common), Arts, Music and Sport (PE). Is there anything here that surprises you? Do you think other disciplines should be included? Are these the main subjects taught in your country? I

3 Would you say that people in your country are more or less enthusiastic about university education than in the UK? 4 How has the pursuit of equality for all influenced the development of the UK education system? Would you say there was equality of opportunity in the current system? 5 In your opinion, what are the successes and failures of the UK education system? What, if anything, do you seem to be doing well, and what areas do you seem to be neglecting or doing poorly?


• Any British Council library has a wealth of information about educational institutions in the UK. For example, a look at some university prospectuses would help you get an idea of ​​UK universities (but of course, remember that these prospectuses work like tsl ads). Alternatively, you can write to UK universities (including the Open University) for free information or prospectuses. • David Lodge's contemporary society comedies Small World and Nice Work are college educated. Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited paints a romantic view of Oxford student life in the 1920s and Tom Sharpe's Porterhouse Blue is a comedy of contemporary student life at Ox Bridge. Educating Rita is a play (also made into a film) by Willy Russell about a working-class Liverpool woman whose life changes when she goes to the Open University.

15 Business and Everyday Life What the English will never forgive the Germans is hard work, GEOR GE MIKES

This statement was written by a Hungarian humorist who emigrated to Great Britain in 1938. He wrote it in 1960, when the German economy was rapidly outpacing Great Britain. standard of living in the UK

have risen steadily since then, but perhaps not as fast as in other EU countries. Great Britain used to be one of the richest countries

European countries. Today, it is often worse than average ED by most measurement standards. (Actually, it was in 1992

even poor enough to qualify for special EU funding for the poorest member states, although national pride prevented them from applying.)

Making money Of course, the above statement is not literally true. Anyway, he does

reflect a certain lack of enthusiasm for work in general. At the top of the social scale, this attitude towards work exists because there is free time.

it has always been the main outward sign of aristocracy. And because of the British class system, it had its impact on society as a whole. If you have to work, the less work it seems the better. Traditionally, therefore, a key characteristic of belonging to the middle class (as opposed to the working class) is that one performs non-manual work. The fact that skilled manual workers (or “laborers”) were paid more than lower-level (i.e., white-collar) “salaried” workers for several decades changed this social perception only slightly. This "anti-work" attitude in the working class has led to a relative lack of ambition or enthusiasm and a belief that a high income is more important than job satisfaction. These attitudes are slowly changing. For example, at least half of the workforce today does not do manual labor, but most identify as working class (see Chapter 4). So it seems that the link between the middle class and non-manual work is weakening. However, the connection between class differences and ways of working persists in many respects. An example of this are the different ways in which revenue is generated

15 Economy and everyday life



... How they get paid

The important people in Britain are no longer associated with specific classes as they used to be. The feminist movement, the expansion of higher education, and an egalitarian atmosphere have reduced the influence of traditional male-dominated institutions such as the public schools and Oxbridge (see Chapter 1+). A common claim is that people in modern Britain achieve their positions through the exercise of their abilities rather than because of their backgrounds. In the early 1990s, even the Prime Minister (John Major) was educated at a state school and dropped out of full-time education at the age of sixteen. However, these changes are limited. In 1992, The Economist magazine compiled a list of holders of 100 of the most important offices in the country (in politics, public service, military, science, art, business and finance). We then compared the backgrounds of these “top” people with those of people in similar positions in [972. Here the results:

%we are ...

attended 10 public schools, of which EtonCollege attended higher education, of which Oxbridge are women

1972 1992 67 14 78 12 2

66 8 89 14 4

In both years, two-thirds of the top students attended a public school (less than 5% of the population attends) and an impressive proportion only one. Higher education was more important in 1992 than it was in 1972. Yet half of all top jobs were held by people from just two of the country's universities. And women are almost entirely excluded (in both annual lists one of these women was the queen').

Manual (and lower grades of non-manual)

no n manual

declared price

because i have ur/week

per annum

Known as



all paid




usually in cash

by check or bank

are conventionally expressed and paid (e-HoI\' they are paid). Another reason is the fact that some professional organizations such as the Sindicato Nacional dos Professores (NUT) never belonged to the union congress (see below). The connection is also evident when we look at the people who occupy the most important positions in the country (t-top people). Perhaps the traditional lack of enthusiasm for work is the reason why the workday starts quite late compared to most European countries (usually around 8 am for blue collar workers and around 9 am for white collar workers). . workers). Measured by the number of hours worked per week, however, Britain's reputation for not working hard enough seems to be wrong (c- The industrious British). The typical lunch break is an hour or less, and most people (unless they work part-time) continue working until five or later. Many people tend to work several hours a week. Furthermore, a comparatively large proportion of Britons remain employed for a relatively large part of their lives. The normal retirement age is sixty-five for most people (sixty for some, including a higher proportion of women). There are three main ways people look for work in the UK: through newspapers (national newspapers for the most qualified, local otherwise), through the local job center (run as a government service) and through private employment agencies (which charge a commission fee received from employers). The general employment trend during the last quarter of the 20th century was basically the same as in the rest of Western Europe. Unemployment has gradually increased and most of the new job opportunities are in the services sector (eg communications, health and social care). This situation led to an interesting irony regarding the two sexes. The decline in heavy industry means fewer jobs in the stereotypical "male jobs", while the rise in service jobs means an increase in jobs in the stereotypical "female jobs". In 1970, around 65% of all workers in Britain were men. In 1993, men made up just 5% of the workforce. When the Gender Discrimination in Employment Act was passed in 1975, it was intentionally

labor organizations

J4 3

Average weekly hours worked (1989)

Percentage of employed population (1989)

- Full-time employees

Those who are working or looking for work

- Full-time self-employed


Il M J6 J8 Belgium Denmark Germany Greece Spain France Ireland Country Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal United Kingdom


Q M %




54 e 58

% 10 IS 40 45 SO 55 Belgium Denmark Germany Greece Spain France Ireland Italy

_ : : : : : ;__ _ _ _ _

Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal United Kingdom

Source: Europe in numbers

.... The British industrious serve primarily to protect women. In 1994, however, the first half of the complaints received by the Equal Opportunities Commission (which the British may not like, it does a lot to enforce the law) came from men. This year there were many. But they seem to spend a lot of time on it. Look at the euro, two and a half times more unemployed men than there were in the above unemployed comparisons. Working women. Many men are now looking for employment as nurses, children's figures show this in Britain, general nurses, clerks, secretaries and other types of office workers. Time Employees work harder, but often find they aren't hired without good reason. . Hours in Europe, Self-Employment It seems that these jobs are still seen as more suited to working longer hours than most women. One of the reasons for this could be low wages in other European countries and more people in their 20s and 20s in these jobs. Although it is illegal for women to be paid less than sixty-five, especially women, than men for the same job, in 1993 the average full-time man remains in the "labor market" as the worker who earns approximately 50% more than the average full-time woman in the United States and most other European countries. worker. Also vacations in Great Britain

Labor organizations The organization representing employers in private industry is called the Confederation of British Industry (CBI). Most employers belong to him and, as such, the advice he gives to unions and the government is quite influential. The Trade Union Congress (TUC) is a voluntary federation of the country's trade unions. There are more than a hundred of them representing workers in all types of companies. Most UK trade unions are associated with specific professions. Many belong to the Labor Party (see Chapter 6), to which its members pay a 'political contribution'. This means that a small portion of their membership fee is passed on to the party, although they have the right to "opt out" of this deal if they so choose. However, unions themselves are generally not formed along party lines; i.e. re is usually just one union for each group of

are comparatively Shan and the country has a comparatively small number of public holidays (see Chapter 23).


15 Economy and everyday life ... Industrial relations: a glossary When disputes arise between workers and superiors, they sometimes go to an arbitration court; that is, both sides agree to let an independent investigator resolve the dispute over the M. Denial of normal work is commonly referred to as a labor action (even if the work has nothing to do with the industry). This can take different forms. One is work-to-reg, in which employees strictly adhere to regulations that affect their workplace and refuse to be flexible or collaborative in the usual sense. The r is also a Go Slow, after all, employees can go on strike. Strikes can be official. whether all necessary procedures for legal validity have been carried out. or unofficially (when they are sometimes called wildcat strikes). When a strike occurs, some strikers act as pickets. They stand at the factory entrance and try to prevent any non-striker colleagues (whom they call blacklegs) from going to work.

Miners on strike in 1984

personal rather than a separate one for each political party within that group. Unions have local branches, some called "chapels", reflecting a historical connection to nonconformity (see Chapter 13). A union is represented at the construction site by a union delegate who negotiates with local management. Fights between her (very rarely "she") and the foreman, the management-appointed seer, became part of twentieth-century folklore. Union membership has declined since 1979 (until the end of unions). Immediately before the n, the president of the TUE (its general secretary) was one of the most powerful people in the country and regularly consulted by the prime minister and other important figures in the government. unions that belonged to the TUE of all workers in the country. But much of the public became disillusioned with the power of unions, and the government responded by legislating to limit that power. Perhaps due to the history of UK trade unions as organizations of full-time male workers, the decline in trade union membership is inevitable for US workers. With the increasing numbers of women and part-time workers in the workforce, the traditional structure of British trade unionism seemed less relevant. In an effort to halt the decline, the Tue declared in 1994 that it was loosening its ties with the Labor faction and wanted closer ties with other parties. Another organization of work deserves special mention. This is the National Union of Farmers (NUF). It does not belong to the TU and as it is mainly composed of agricultural employers and self-employed farmers. Considering the small number of people working in agriculture in the UK (the lowest proportion in the whole of the EU), it has a remarkably large impact. This is perhaps due to the particular fascination that 'the country' holds for most Britons (see Chapter 5), which makes it relatively easy for the NUF to make its claims heard, and also because many of its members are wealthy.

The structure of trade and industry

The structure of trade and industry Economic and industrial "modernisation" came later in Britain than in most other European countries. It wasn't until the 1960s that large corporations began to dominate and a 'management class' educated in business schools began to emerge. Even after this period, many companies preferred to recruit their managers from among people who had “rised” in the group's hierarchy and/or were personally known to board members. It wasn't until J 9805 that business degrees became the norm for newly hired executives. British industry fared poorly in the decades following World War II (some people have attributed this to the above traits). In contrast, British agriculture was very prosperous. In this industry, large organizations (i.e. large farms) have been more common in the UK than other European countries for some time. As in all European countries, the economic system in Great Britain is a mixture of private and public companies. How much of the country's economy is controlled by the state has fluctuated widely over the last fifty years and has been the subject of constant political debate. From 1945 to 1980, the general trend was towards increased state control. Several industries were nationalized (i.e. state-owned), mainly those related to energy generation and distribution. So are the various forms of transportation and communication services (as well as, of course, the provision of education, social welfare and health care). Until 1980, "pure" capitalism probably represented a smaller part of the economy than in any other Western European country. From 1980 onwards, the trend went in the other direction. A key part of the Conservative government's philosophy of the 1980s was to let "market forces" rule (which meant restricting the freedom to do business as little as possible) and to bankrupt state-owned enterprises in companies owned by individuals (the shareholders became). This approach was an important part of Thatcherite thinking (Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister at the time). Between 1980 and 1994 a large number of companies were privatized (or denationalized). That means they were sold by the government. In 1988 there were more shareholders than union members in the country. In addition, local government agencies were encouraged to “outsource” their responsibility for services to commercial organizations. The privatization of services that Westerners now consider essential required the creation of various public "watchdog" organizations with regulatory powers over the industries they oversee. For example, Offtel monitors the activities of the privatized telephone industry and OffWat monitors the privatized water companies,

... The decline of unions In the 1980s, the British government passed several laws to limit the power of unions. One abolished the 'closed shop' (an agreement employers made with unions to only hire people who belonged to a union). Another made strikes illegal unless all union members voted by mail. In 198+ there was a long strike by the miners. The National Union of Miners refused to comply with the new regulations. Their leader, Arthur Scargill. it became a symbol (depending on your point of view) of all the worst follies of trade unionism or the valiant struggle of the working class against the rise of archery. The first miners' strikes of the 20th century were largely successful. But this one was not (the miners did not reach their goals); a sign of the loss of power of the unions. Here's another sign (the TUC is the Sindical Congress, the national federation of trade unions):

Total TUC members millions

12 II 10

9 8

7 6



146 ~

15 Economy and everyday life

The growing gulf between riches

The Distribution of Wealth

and bad £5.00 £4.50


20% enough

£ 4,00 n50



£ 2,50


£ 2,00


l nach orest 20%

£ 0,50

Source: Sociol Trends /994 The graph shows that for every pound owned by the poorest 20% of the population in Great Britain in 1978, most people had two pounds and the richest 20% of the population had three pounds. By 1994, the wealth gap had widened. The richest people were about 50% richer, and most people were about 25% richer. The poorest, however, became a little poorer.

... Tax collection The state organization responsible for tax collection in Great Britain is called the Inland Revenue. For employees, paying income tax is not an issue they need to worry about. It is deducted from your paycheck or pay packet before you receive it. This system is known as PAY E (= Pay as you Earn). The tax that is added to the price of something you buy is called VAT (=value added tax).

In the early 1970s, Britain had one of the fairest distributions of wealth in Western Europe. In the early 1990s it had one of the least fair tables. The rich got richer, but the poor didn't. Some research suggests that, at this point, the gap between the richest 10% of the population and the poorest 10% was as large as it was at the end of the 19th century, and for the large number of households we live in, they live below the ' poverty line', meaning they didn't have enough money for basic things like food and heat. Class and wealth don't go hand in hand in Britain (see Chapter 4), so it's not a country where people are particularly fond of flaunting their wealth. Likewise, people in general are not ashamed of being poor. Of course they don't like being in g po or being in g po or but they don't feel obligated to hide the fact. This can sometimes lead to an acceptance of poverty that is surprising for an "advanced" country. When news broke of its increasing proportions in 1992, the government did not pretend that poverty no longer existed or promise to do something radical about it. Instead, she released a nutritional proposal through the Department of Agriculture that she said could be afforded by even the poorest people. Of course, there was public comment about the paternalistic nature of this action, but criticism in the press focused on how unrealistic the diet was, how the numbers didn't add up (and the mystery of how one person could cook the recommended half). one egg a week and should eat). One reason for the rising inequality of the UK population in the 1970s and 1980s is that income tax rates changed. For a brief period in the 1960s, the property tax rate was 40%. In the early 1980s it was 30%, then it dropped to 25%. In the same period, the maximum rate dropped from 98% to 40%. Of course, these numbers don't mean that much is deducted from income. People in different situations may earn different amounts before taxes. People earning twice the average salary are deducted about 25% of their gross income. Those earning less than half the average wage pay very little tax. However, as a side note to this writing, there is a huge disparity in different people's "e-house pay". In the 1980s, wages for higher-paying jobs rose faster than those for low-paying jobs. People in the highest paying jobs now take home about 10 times as much as those in the lowest paying jobs. For example, many CEOs take home seven times the average salary.

Finance and Investment Wealth (and poverty) are relative terms. Despite its relative economic decline, Britain is still one of the most prosperous places in the world. The empire is gone, the big manufacturing industries are gone

investment financing

almost gone, but London is still one of the centers of the financial world. The Financial Times-Stock Exchange (FT-SE) index of the 100 largest companies in the UK (popularly known as the 'Footsie') says: This is the bank's nickname for one of the world's leading stock price indices England The institute that controls the money supply in the UK The reason for this is not hard to find, for it is clear that the very features which are localized contributed to the country's decline as an important industrial and political 'borough'. and tradition over Names that suggest both familiarity and change, emphasis on face-to-face rather than demonstration - and also conservative habits The bank was described as "fascinated by its own past. Traits attract investors when people don't want to be able to, which the people who invest a lot of money, what is important to them here or there an atmosphere that is said to be proud of its stability and personal confidence.These are the qualities to be nicknamed.located in the "square mile" of Old London (see Chapter 3), which has one of the largest concentrations of insurance companies, commercial banks, joint-stock banks and securities firms in the world. In terms of stability, many of the institutions in the so-called "city" have a long and unbroken history Some of them have directors from the same family that founded the company perhaps over 200 years ago. Although there have been adjustments for modern conditions and the cliché "City Gent" "Bowler Hatte" is a thing of the past, the sense of continuity, embodied by the many old buildings along the square mile, is still strong. In terms of trust, the city has a reputation for secrecy habits that may be considered undesirable in other aspects of public life, but which become an asset in financial dealings. In this context, Adoorman, at the Bank of England, “secrecy” means “discretion”. Although more than half of the British population has cash... High street banks have indirectly invested in the city (because the insurance companies and pension funds they trust and invest in, each of which has an almost listed branch), most people don't know what's going on in the British town of Cvery: the world of 'high finance'. For most people, money is just a matter of having the National Westminster Bank, the money in your pocket and your account at one of the "high places" (N atwest): Barclays Bank; Banks on Lloyds Street (c- The High Street Banks). Not every adult has a bank account. Bank; Mittellandbank. The Bank of Scotland also has a big lie. In 1970, only about 30% used these banks. But with the increase in the number of branches. 50 Payment of salary by check and introduction of cash payment Treuhandsparkasse (TSB). Machines now do this for most. However, many still prefer to use their national savings account at the post office or one of the country's construction companies (see Chapter 19). An indication of the importance of bank accounts in people's lives is the strong development of aversion to banks. During the Barclays of the 1990s, new Spapers used horror, or stories, about their practices. From 1988 to 1993, bank profits increased by 0.0%, while commissions for :'~': customers increased by 70%. It is often difficult for people to do anything ••'.... 5'l1-: eJLlO YdS about bank fees - when trying to discuss this with your bank, :~~~ Bank MI DLAND The Li8l enlng Hank they will be charged for phone calls and letters! So far, the only clear '''''''' H'''' C'G Some well-known charities

The Samaritan organization offers free telephone counseling with guaranteed anonymity to anyone who is sick, distressed and contemplating suicide. The Salvation Army is organized along military lines and grew out of Christian missionary work in the slums of 19th century London. II offers help to the most desperate and needy. for example . Overnight in hostels for the housewife. Bam ado. also founded in the 19th century. used to provide a home for orphaned children and still helps children in need. MEN C:\P is a charity and advocate for the mentally handicapped.

II> Obtain medication through the SNS

When a drug is needed, the doctor writes a prescription, which the patient looks for in a pharmacy (that is, a pharmacy, but this word is used only by medical professionals). The re is a fee for each recipe. This is the same regardless of the actual cost of the drug, although categories of people are exempt.

respect for privacy and appreciation of "family values" by successive governments; On the other hand, there is the modern expectation that public authorities meddle in people's private lives.

life and its legal possibility to do so. Before the welfare state was established and the concept of 'social services' emerged, the poor and needy in Britain turned to many charities for help. These organizations were (and still are) made up primarily of unpaid volunteers. especially women n., and depended (and still depends) on voluntary contributions from the public. Today there are more than 5,000 registered charities in the country. Together they have an income of over £15 billion. Most of them are charities only in the legal sense (they are non-profit and therefore pay no income tax) and have never meant anything to the poor and needy. However, even today there are large numbers offering help in various ways to large sections of the public (c- some well-known charities). Charities and local government social services departments sometimes work together. One example is the Meals on Wheels system. The food is prepared by local government workers and then distributed by volunteers to the homes of people who cannot cook for themselves. Another example is the Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB). which has a network of offices across the country offering free information and advice. CAB is funded by local authorities and the Department of Trade and Industry. bnt offices are staffed by volunteers.

The National Health Service The NHS (the National Health Service is commonly referred to by this acronym) is widely regarded as the crown jewel of the welfare system. Interesting. it is very 'un-bnush' on the unity and integrity of your organization. When it was set up, no. as in so many other areas of British public life. adapt to what has already happened. Instead of partnering with the hundreds of existing hospitals run by charities. just took over most of them. The system is centrally organized and there is little interaction with the private sector. For example . there is no cooperation with health insurers and therefore there is no choice for the population as to which health insurer to join. Health insurance is arranged by the government and is mandatory. However . in other respects, the NHS is quintessentially British. This is due to bureaucratization. The system . from the public point of view. It's quite simple. There are no forms to fill out and no payment to make that will be refunded later. All someone needs to do to reap the full benefits of the scheme is register with a local NHS doctor. Most physicians in the country are general practitioners (GPs) and form the heart of the system. a visit to

The National Health Service ... Private medical care The family doctor is the first step in any type of treatment. The family doctor schedules the exams, surgeries, specialty consultations or medications that he deems necessary. Only in case of emergency or people with private health plans, when the patient is not at home, the treatment can be done in another way. % of population As in most other European countries, teeth and eyes are the exceptions to free medical care. Again, many people (eg children) do not have to pay, and patients pay less than the actual cost of dental treatment because it is subsidised. 8 Modern NHS difficulties are the same as 6 equivalent systems in other countries. The potential for medical treatment has increased dramatically, as has the number of elderly people.

The need for medical care has become so great that costs have skyrocketed.


The NHS employs well over a million people, making it the largest single employer in the country. Medical professionals often have to decide which patients should receive the limited resources available and which will have to wait to potentially die. Over the last few decades, the UK government has implemented reforms to make the NHS more cost-effective. One is that hospitals have to outsource tasks like cooking and cleaning when the cost is lower that way. Another reason is that hospitals can “opt out” of local authority control and become autonomous “trusts” (ie registered charities). Likewise, GPs who have less than a certain number of patients on their books may choose to control their own budgets. Together, these two reforms mean that some GPs are now looking to different hospitals for ALT to find the most affordable treatment for their patients. These changes have led to fears that commercial considerations will override medical ones and that the NHS system will collapse in favor of private healthcare. And indeed, while pride and confidence in the NHS is still quite strong, it is waning. There has been a steady increase in the number of people who pay for private health insurance (c-Private medical care) in addition to the state health insurance, which by law is borne by all workers. Indeed, the British healthcare system can already claim cost efficiency for itself. The country spends less money on health care per person than any other country in the western world. A possible reason for this is the way GPs are paid. The money they receive from the government does not depend on the number of consultations they do. Rather, it depends on the number of registered patients they have - they are paid a "per capita" fee for each one. Therefore, they have no incentive to make more appointments than necessary. It is in their interest that their patients stay as healthy as possible and come to them as little as possible so that they have more patients on their books. The other possible reason is the "stiff upper lip" of the British. In general, you don't make a big deal out of the disease. If the doctor says it's nothing


There are several private health insurers in the country. The biggest one is BUPA. As you can see, these systems are becoming more and more popular. This is not because people believe that private treatment is better than NHS treatment from a purely medical point of view. But it is generally recognized as more convenient. NHS patients who need non-urgent surgery often have to claim more than a year and even those who need relatively urgent surgery sometimes have to wait more than a month. With private systems, people can choose to have the surgery whenever and wherever they want. This is its main attraction. The length of 'waiting lists' for surgeries on the NH S is one of the most debated public issues. Private patients sometimes use "paid beds" in NHS hospitals, which are usually in separate rooms (NHS patients are usually housed in 10-2 bed wards). and beds). There are also some hospitals and clinics that are completely private. These are sometimes referred to as "retiring homes".



17 2

18Welfare...Nurses' Uniforms One of the most recognizable uniforms in Britain is that commonly worn by nurses. For years, it was widely criticized as old-fashioned and sexist and promoted the image of nurses as scatterbrained. sexy girl. The annual conference of the Royal College of Nursing always passes a resolution calling for the introduction of trousers. Skirts are said to result in back pain (and thousands of lost workdays a year) as nurses struggle to maintain their dignity while lifting heavy patients. The hat is also criticized as impractical. It is likely that something will finally change.

A nurse in traditional uniform

.... Emergency services From anywhere in the UK, anyone needing emergency assistance can call '999' free of charge. The operator connects the caller to the fire department, ambulance or police.

You don't have to worry, they will most likely accept this diagnosis. Partly as a result of this, GPs in the UK prescribe far fewer drugs for their patients than GPs in other European countries. When it was founded, the NHS intended to tackle the financial difficulties of illness - to provide people with health insurance 'from the womb to the grave'. In this regard, despite the introduction of fees for some types of treatment, it can still claim great success.

The medical profession Doctors are generally as valued in Britain as anywhere else in the world. Specialist doctors have a higher reputation than general practitioners, hospital consultants being the most important. These specialists can work for the NHS and spend the rest of their time getting high fees from private patients. Some are operated on in Harley Street, London, which is traditionally the sign that a doctor is one of the best. However, the difference in status between specialists and general practitioners is not as pronounced as it is in most other countries. Medical school does not automatically assume that a bright student will become an expert. General practitioners are by no means considered second class. The idea of ​​family doctors with personal knowledge of their patients' circumstances came about in an era when only wealthy people could afford a doctor. But the NHS head tax system (see above) encouraged this idea to spread to the general population. Most general practitioners work in a “group practice”. This means that they work in the same building as a number of other GPs. This allows them to share facilities such as waiting rooms and reception desks. Each patient is registered with only one doctor in the office, but this system means that if the doctor is not available, the patient can be seen by another doctor. The status of nurses in Great Britain goes back to its origins in the 19th century. Victorian reformer Florence Nightingale became a national heroine for her organization of nursing and hospital facilities during the Crimean War in the 1850s. Because of them, nurses have an almost sacred image among the British public, who are widely admired for their work. assistance. However, this image suggests that they do their work out of the goodness of their hearts rather than for a living. As a result, the nursing profession has always been underpaid and there is a very high turnover of nursing staff. Most nurses, the vast majority of whom are still women, leave the profession after a few years. The style of the British nursing profession also goes back to its origins. Born in times of war, it is distinctly military in its uniforms, clear separation of ranks, insistence on strict rules of procedure, and tendency to place great emphasis on group loyalty.

Questions... Alternative medicine One of the reasons Britons prescribe less medicine per person in Europe may be because of a consensus

Feeling that many conventional medications are dangerous and should only be taken when absolutely necessary. More and more people consider them really bad for you. Instead, people and others are turning to some of the treatments that are often referred to as "alternative medicine". A wide variety of these are available (perhaps reflecting British individualists). However, the medical establishment (as represented by the British Medical Association) has been slow to consider the possible benefits of such treatments, and the majority of the population still tends to regard them with suspicion. For example, homeopathic medicines are not as widely available in pharmacies as they are in some other northwestern European countries. One of the few alternative treatments (Q) that originated in the UK is the Bach Flower Remedies.

A business with "ancient emotive medicine"


In the UK, the only people who can choose whether or not to pay national insurance contributions are the self-employed. More and more decide against it. Why do you think this is? 2. Would you say that the balance between public welfare and charity in the UK is different than in your country? Does the UK balance seem stable or is it shifting in favor of one or the other? Does this also apply to your country? 3 As you read this chapter, do you think the UK welfare state is successful in helping those in need? How many and what types of people do you think “escape from the care network”

4 According to this chapter, what are the main problems facing the welfare state in modern Britain? Do you have similar problems in your country? What solutions have been proposed or tried in the UK? Do you think they are right? 5 How does the general status and reach of nurses in the UK compare to nurses in your country?


[7 4

19 housing

Almost everyone in the UK dreams of living in a family home; that is, a house which is a separate building. We all know the saying “An Englishman's home is his castle”. It illustrates the desire for privacy and the importance attached to property that seems to be at the heart of the British Aui Tu de to Ho using.

Houses Instead of Apartments A large, secluded home doesn't just offer privacy. It is also a status symbol. At the extreme end of the scale is the aristocratic 'mansion' set in extensive gardens. Of course, such a house is an unrealistic dream for most people. But also a small family home

Surrounded by gardens, it offers all the stimulation necessary for the rural life so dear to many English people. Most people would be happy to live in a country house, and if it's a thatched house reminiscent of a pre-industrial era, even better.

Most people try to avoid living in apartment blocks (as Americans call "apartment blocks"). In their opinion, apartments offer less privacy. With few exceptions, particularly in some central London locations, flats are the cheapest type of house. They are home to people who cannot afford to live anywhere else. The aversion to living in an apartment is very strong. In the 1950s, millions of poorer people were living in old, cold and uncomfortable 19th century houses, often with only an outhouse and no toilets. Over the next twenty years, many of them acquired new, sophisticated "tall" apartment blocks to live in, with central heating and bathrooms. they were much more comfortable and surrounded by grassy open spaces. But people hated their new homes. They said they felt isolated from the world on all those floors. You missed the neighboring line. They couldn't keep an eye on the children playing down there in those beautiful green spaces. The new skyscrapers quickly fell into disrepair. The elevators broke down. The hallway lights didn't work. The windows were broken and not fixed. There was graffiti all over the walls.

A thatched house: an idealized country retreat

houses, not apartments

Theoretically (and beyond the difficulties of childcare), there's no objective reason why these skyscrapers (aka "skyscrapers") couldn't have worked. In other countries, millions of people live reasonably happily in apartments. But in Britain they failed because they don't fit the British attitude. The flaw has been public knowledge for several years. No more skyscrapers will be built. Currently, only 4% of the population lives in one. Only 20% of households in the country live in apartments of any kind ...the most sought-after home: a single-family home The photo is from a construction advertisement. Note: • 'traditional' building materials brick (walls) and slate (roof); • the irregular, 'non-classical' shape, with all those corners that give the house a 'cozy' feel (see main text); • the suggestion of a large front garden with trees and shrubs, which does not resemble anything

a single family house

only the countryside, but also more privacy: • that {the garage (on the left) is discreetly hidden so as not to be too visible and not spoil the rural atmosphere; • the front door doesn't even appear in the photo (again privacy criteria at work).

17 1)


19 house singing g

... Least desirable: a semi-detached house

... Second best: half d and t ach d

Unless they are in the most remote parts of the country. Single-family homes are too expensive for most people. So a very large proportion of people live here: one building with two separate houses. Each house is the mirror of the other. in and out. You can find these houses on the street after

Road. in city suburbs and on the outskirts of cities across the UK. Note the separate garden for each house. On the sides there is access to the back where the back will also be two gardens. The most common building material is brick. The typical semi-detached house has two floors and three bedrooms.

... One exception: the house has and

rent: modern developments Landlord growth is in the millions

20 15 10


o • occupied by the owner • leased by the municipality • leased by housing cooperatives, used privately, professionally or commercially

Source: Ministry of the Environment This graph shows how the number of landowners increased in the second half of the 20th century. The UK now has a proportion of owner-occupied households that is well above the European average.

Most Britons don't "belong" anywhere in particular (see Chapter 4), nor do they tend to grow up in a long-established family home to which they can return at any time. Maybe that's why they are often not satisfied with renting their accommodation. Wherever they are, they like to put down roots. The desire to own where you live is almost non-existent in Britain. However, property prices are high. This dilemma is overcome by the mortgage system, which is probably a more common aspect of everyday life than anywhere else in the world. About 70% of all homes in the country are owner-occupied, and nearly all of them we buy back with a mortgage. At any given time, half of it belongs to people who borrowed 80% (or even more) of its price and are now paying that money back month after month. Usually, the borrower repays the money over a period of twenty to twenty five years. Financial institutions known as “building societies” were originally formed to provide mortgages. However, in the 1980s, regulations were relaxed and banks now also offer mortgages. People like to take out mortgages because house prices generally increase a little faster than the overall cost of living. Therefore, most people can profit from selling their home. This expectation is so strong that terms like "first buyer" and "second buyer" are familiar to us. The former can only afford one of the cheapest household appliances. But about ten years later, when part of their mortgage debt is paid off, they could become their last. They sell their houses at a profit and move to a more expensive house. While nearly everyone wants to own their own home, most people didn't start doing so until the late 20th century. Prior to this time, most working-class people lived in rented apartments. Most of them have already been rented from private landlords, some of whom have exploited them badly. However, millions of homes were built by local government agencies in 19505 and 19605. In 1977, two-thirds of all tenants lived in these "town halls" (or apartments in some cases). Municipal rents are subsidized, so they are low. Each municipality maintains a waiting list of families wishing to move into municipal property. The order of preferences is worked out by a complicated set of priorities. Once they get a council house, tenants have security; This means they don't have to move, even if they get rich. From 1950 to 1980, the proportion of "owner occupants" gradually increased. The pursuit of property was facilitated by 'tax relief' policies. Some of the interest people paid on their mortgages could be deducted from the income tax they paid, and people selling their homes didn't have to pay a "capital gains tax" on the profits. Since both owner-occupiers and council tenants are increasing in number, the proportion of people renting from private landlords is increasing.

own and rent

Who owns it? Who rents? 100%





"/"II "/"0 11oo-/"011oo-/"11 "/"II .. /"0"'" 1---

Owned, fully owned



c40% 20%

1= _




r- r-



Owner-occupied property with mortgage debt


_I_1_.. r-



Leased from local authority

rented privately

Source: General Household Survey (w 989-90)

.... Own and rent: The class has become - and still is - one of the lowest in the world. Then, in the 1980s, the number of owner-occupiers increased in the mid-20th century, whether you are an owner or even stronger. An integral part of the Thatcherist philosophy (renting a house was a class feature. Prime Minister Margaret t Thatcher) was the idea of ​​'property, if you owned your house, you owned democracy'. Council tenants were allowed to buy out the middle class; if you lived in municipal housing and received financial incentives to do so. Dehouse, you were working class. The regulation of mortgage lending (see above) also encouraged home buying. However, the chart above shows buying. Likewise, an increase in financial support for homeowners who are no longer eligible. A clear majority of skilled workers wanted to make improvements to their properties. At the same time, owner-occupiers and 40% of local governments are severely restricted in the number of properties, even unskilled workers. they could build and were also encouraged to sell their condos to private "housing companies". As a result, the number of people (of any category) owning community tenants has actually decreased. their home “okay” (although they paid off the mortgage) or in the mid-1990s, renting to private individuals seemed to be the trend of the previous decade. Only among those who stopped. There are fewer public housing tenants than we are buying their homes with high-end jobs, and mortgage tax breaks have been phased out. The policy of selling more private tenants than council housing had been discredited by “tenant houses”. voice scandal. By the early 1990s, it was becoming clear that some local governments led by the Conservative Party had decided to leave their properties vacant, rather than renting them out to families who needed them until they found buyers for them. The idea was that homebuyers were likely to vote conservative — while people who could only afford rent were likely not.




19 what

... House hunting When you want to buy a house it is very rare to negotiate directly with the seller . Instead, go to a real estate agent. These companies exist solely to act as “go-bcrwcens” for people buying and selling homes. They help with the various procedures - and charge a hefty commission! If you are interested in one of the "on the hook" houses, arrange a "visit". You can also identify homes for sale by the "For Sale" signs posted on wooden poles outside the homes in question. If you want to rent somewhere from a private owner (not the municipality), you usually look in the local newspaper. Real estate agents do not usually deal with renting real estate, although there are special agencies. Another way to find an apartment is "Hocken". Squatters are people who occupy empty houses without paying compensation. If you do not cause any harm by moving into an empty apartment, then you have not broken the law. If the landlord wants to evict you from the home, he or she must obtain a court order to evict you. i.e. Alternatively, you can become a "New Age Traveler" and live in a bus, bus or van and move from place to place.

New Age Traveler

Homeless In 1993 there were around half a million homeless people in Britain - one of the highest proportions of the population of any country in Europe. The supply of social housing is limited. and has been in decline since the 1980s due to the sale of affordable housing and a lack of money to build new homes. Furthermore, many chapels and houses are poorly built and uninhabitable. Laws passed in the 1970s to increase security for tenants renting from private landlords made it less profitable for people to rent out their homes, so the supply of private rental housing also declined. This is a large number of people who cannot afford rented private accommodation, who are not eligible for social housing (and would likely end up at the end of a long waiting list). if they were) and who certainly cannot buy a house or apartment. Finally, as in all of Western Europe, the average size of families has become smaller, so that although the population is growing very slowly, more living space is still needed. In the early 1990s, many people who previously thought we were safe in our own homes were suddenly faced with the prospect of being homeless. They had taken out large mortgages to buy their homes at a time when the country was experiencing an economic boom and home prices were rising (and looking set to rise). Many of these people lost their jobs during the recession and could no longer afford their monthly mortgage payments. To make matters worse, home values ​​at the time fell unusually. They have had to sell their homes, often for less than they bought them, leaving us as much in debt as they are homeless. Most homeless families are provided with temporary accommodation in boarding houses (small privately run or “bed and breakfast” boarding houses) by the local government. It is the duty of local authorities to accommodate homeless families. Some families and many single people find even more temporary shelter at homeless shelters run by charities. Thousands of singles live only on the streets where they "sleep". The term "cardboard city" became popular in the 1980s to describe areas in large cities, especially London, where large numbers of homeless people camped, protected only by cardboard boxes from the elements. Dealing with homelessness is not a policy priority for the UK government, in part because public awareness of the situation is low (despite the efforts of charities such as Shelter, which offer advice and support to the homeless). -roof). who announce them). In many cases, the homeless are people with personal problems that make it difficult for them to adapt. Some of them are people who just don't want to "settle down" and would not classify as homeless. There are, for example,

questions and suggestions

several thousand 'travellers' in the country, both traditional Gypsies who have led a nomadic life for generations and more recent converts to this lifestyle (often known as 'New Age travellers' - see Chapter 13 for an explanation of 'New Age '). Their homes are the vehicles in which they move from place to place, and they are often hounded by unsympathetic authorities. For these people, the problem is not that they are “homeless”, but the official attitude towards their way of life.


Brits living in Fiats in other parts of Europe have been downright terrible at times.

when they realize they should


5 In 1933, George Orwell wrote a book entitled DO\\11 and Out in Paris and London, recounting his experiences with homeless people in these two

have flowers of the same color on their balconies

cities. In the book, he compares laissez-faire

like every other Fiat on the block. Why are you so shocked? How do you explain the popularity of different

Attitude towards the homeless in Paris with the tough attitude in London: If you had no money in Paris and couldn't find a public bank, you would be sitting on the sidewalk. God knows what scouring the pavement would probably lead to in a London jail.

Types of apartments in the UK? Are the same types popular in your country? 3 Even in a small town in the UK. several offices

and the stores are being taken over by companies dubbed “Estate Ageges” whose only role is to help people

the opposite. It's in Paris now, not London

buy and sell their homes. However, in the same city there may not be a housing estate -

that homeless people, if they want to avoid being caught by the police, have to do so

Panies at all people could go. Why do

they don't draw attention. allowed to

do you think this is also applicable to your country? 4 In modern Britain there is not a widespread feeling of resentment against the aristocrats who live there.

It was observed that the contrast is now the

Do you think why this change occurred? How does the UK's current attitude towards deafness compare to your country's?

big beautiful country ho used. Why not? SUGGESTIONS

• Sheher, the organization dedicated to bringing the UK government's attention to domestic needs and providing help and advice to the homeless (or those with housing difficulties). will send an information packet upon request. Why that

is a charity, Shelter would like a self-addressed envelope and postage included with orders. Shelter's address is 88 Old Street, London EC IV 9HU.



On the mainland, people have good food; Table manners are good in England. GEORGEMIKES

Great Britain and good food are two things that are not commonly associated. Visitors to the UK have very different opinions about all sorts of aspects of the country. but most of you seem to agree that the

food is terrible. Why" One reason may simply be that British tastes are unlike any other"5. However, the most common complaint isn't so much that British food is weird. unpleasant

taste, but it has very little taste. The vegetables, for example, are overcooked. It's very blue. Another explanation could be that most visitors to the UK don't come

the opportunity to taste homemade food. Either they eat the food that is prepared in such an institution as a university canteen, or they "call a lot", mainly in fairly inexpensive restaurants and cafes. You definitely won't find good British food here. Typical British cuisine with lots of toast. it does not lend itself to the large-scale production or rapid preparation required in such locations. On the one hand, according to the British, food should be eaten hot, which is difficult to prepare when feeding a large number of people. In addition, the English are not in the habit of preparing sauces with grilled meats to make them tastier.

Attitude towards food The above explanations only serve as a partial excuse for the bad reputation of British cuisine. Even in fast food restaurants and ordinary cafes, the quality looks worse than it is.

equivalent places in other countries. It seems the Brits just don't care enough to care. The country does not have a widespread “restaurant culture” or a “cafe society”. At lunchtime, people just want to eat quickly and aren't very interested in quality (the lunch break doesn't last more than an hour). Young people and families with children who eat in fast food restaurants are also not interested in quality. Little effort is put into making the burgers taste good because nobody expects them.

to be. The coffee sucks, not because the English prefer it that way.

Des for fo's attitude

But since they don't go to a coffee shop for a delicious, slow cup of coffee, they go because they need the caffeine. "Fry-up" is a colloquial term. Even in Horne, relatively little attention is paid to eating and drinking. for several fried parts at the same time. The most common items are eggs. Coffee is often just as bad as in cafes. British supermarkets sell far more instant coffee than the few people who drink bacon, sausages, tomatoes, Mushsell and even bread. It is not often called "real" coffee. Instant coffee is less of a problem. Meals are usually always accompanied by "fries" (which are eaten quickly and the table is cleared). Feasts and celebrations are not a standard British word for potato chips, which generally revolves around food). The fact that the British eat a lot expresses a preference for barbecue, which does not necessarily mean fried food. Though sometimes poetic or fond of grilled food, this means he or his allies are referred to as the "Staff of Life". She likes the typical barbecue atmosphere. Bread is not an accompaniment When the British eat food, it usually accompanies every meal. It's usually not even a matter of not appreciating it, but of noticing what they don't like. Food on the table at midday or in the headlines only within the limits of its dangers: for example, at dinner. It is most commonly eaten with Butler and almost everyone in 1993 when it was discovered that 100 tons of six-year-old meat could be used for snacks or sale; or when a government minister makes a sandwich or toast (a British household announced that the country's eggs were infected with Salmonella. In the early 1990s, everyone in the country knew the basic condition of mad cow disease). On the other hand, disease” (disease that affects the brain of infected cattle). The British need a lot of flour for quite a large number of UK vegetarians and an even larger number of baked goods, both of which are salted Eggs are a key part of most street like delicacies They are fried, Brits mostly live in the city and have little contact with cooked and eaten "egg" "country" longer than people in other countries. Maybe this cup. boiled (so they can be eaten with your fingers or stuffed into them are mouse sandwiches) or poached (steamed). There are many ardent British carnivores who find cold cuts not very popular and get very sick at the thought of eating horse meat. For many Brits, the preserved idea of ​​harvesting wild plants for the table is exotic. It is a typical "continental" meat. It is perhaps telling that when Brits want to insult people in most households in another country, they often allude to their eating habits. for a family meal ending with a prepared sweet dish. Because of the strange things they do with cabbage, they call it "pudding", "sweet" or the Germans are "kraut". Dessert" (class differences are clubs, the French are "frogs"). The range of dishes is great, but the picture is not entirely negative. For those conservatives in terms of ingredients, they are no longer conservatives in terms of purpose many of which are served hot (often like a kind of cake), the way they are served 1. The British are the biggest British tour packages in the world, who in Spain have not only made a point of eating sugar consumers - constantly more than five ( traditionally British ) fish and chips, but also by the kilo per person per person They are, as was tradition, packed in specially imported British gifts in almost all canned food newspapers! , the British are very open minded and also love the "sweet" cuisine of other countries The shelves of supermarkets in the country are full (I mean all types of chocolate, as well as what spices and sauces are made from mericans to cook dishes everything the world needs, referred to as "sweets") means. world (the increasingly multicultural nature of the population has helped). Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the sheer pleasure of eating and drinking.

18 5


20 Eating and Drinking III- When

people at what: meals

A new . Generalizations are dangerous. Below is what everyone knows - but not necessarily what everyone knows! Breakfast usually consists of packaged muesli (eg corn flakes) and/or toast and jam. Not usually a 'traditional' British breakfast (see Chapter 5). 'Elc vcn scs' is. conventional. one

Cup of tea or coffee and some biscuits around eleven o'clock. In reality. People drink tea or coffee whenever they feel like it. This is usually the case quite often. Lunch is usually at one in the afternoon (all stores close for lunch from one to two). But eight o'clock is usually a little earlier for students and young professionals. For the urban working class (and a larger part of the population in Scotland and Ireland), tea is dinner. eaten as soon as people get home from work (around six o'clock). For the other classes, that means a cup of tea and a snack around four o'clock. "Dinner" is the common word for dinner among most people who don't call it "tea". "Dinner" is sometimes also used for dinner. It suggests something larger and is eaten relatively late (around eight and eight o'clock). It is associated with relative stinginess (many people talk about "Christmas dinner" even when it's in the middle of the day). It is also sometimes used to refer to school lunches.

Eating Out Although far less uncommon than it used to be, dining out is still a comparatively rare occurrence for most Britons. Regular dining out is mostly limited to the wealthier strata of society. Partly for this reason, Re is an element of the snobbery associated with it. Sometimes being at an expensive restaurant seems to be more important to people than the food. For example, a survey of experts in 1992 found that most caviar in London restaurants was not what it said (the most valuable beluga variety) and was often stale or badly worn. Experts commented that restaurants use the mystique of caviar to hide the poor quality of their food because "most people...don't really know what they're eating." Another expression of snobbery in more expensive restaurants is the menus. In a country where few public service announcements appear in any language other than English, this is a unique phenomenon - all dishes have non-English, often French, names (reflecting the high regard for French cuisine). It also makes food more exotic and therefore more exciting. Many customers at these restaurants have no idea what is actually in the dish they have chosen. But when the government suggested in 1991 that menus list the ingredients of dishes, every chef and restaurateur in the country was outraged. They argued that it would take the fun out of eating. The assumption behind this reasoning is that going out to a restaurant is a time for adventurers. This concept of “adventure” is undoubtedly widespread. This helps explain why so few restaurants in the UK are truly British. Since they rarely do this when people go out to dinner, they want to be served something they don't normally eat. Every city in the country has at least one Indian restaurant and probably a Chinese one as well. In larger cities, there are restaurants representing cuisine from around the world. Restaurants serving British food are only used for more everyday purposes. In addition to pubs, there are two types, both of which are comparatively inexpensive. One is used during the day, mostly by workers, and is therefore sometimes called a "workers' cafe" (pronounced "caff"). But it's also used by someone else who likes a hearty meal, likes the formal atmosphere, and doesn't care too much about cleanliness, offers mostly fried "English breakfast" dishes (see Chapter 5), and is sometimes called "greasy spoon" prank. " for this reason. Many of them are "non-operating sports cafes" on the sides of main streets. In 1991, I purposely and publicly ate Prime Minister John Major in one of these cafes to prove that he was "a man of the people". . .. Again, the fish is fried (fried).

Alcohol... What people drink

In a greasy cafe Fast food outlets are now more common in the UK than in most other countries. Cynics might argue that this is because the British don't have good taste. However, its popularity can probably be explained more sociologically. Other types of restaurants in the UK tend to have class associations. As a result, large sectors of society feel unable to relax within themselves. But a fast-food restaurant doesn't have such strong associations of that sort. Although there are sometimes protests from the local middle class when a new restaurant appears in their area, people of almost every class can feel comfortable with them.

Alcohol Attitudes towards alcohol in Britain are mixed. On the one hand, it is accepted and welcomed as an integral part of British culture. The pub plays an important role in almost every neighborhood and pubs, needless to say, are predominantly for drinking beer and spirits. The nearest pub is commonly referred to as 'the local' and people who go there are known as 'regulars'. The action in the country's two most popular television series (see Chapter 18) revolves around a pub. A certain level of walking ability is also acceptable. Unless it leads to violence, it's not shameful. On the other hand, the Puritan tradition has led to the widespread view that drinking is potentially dangerous and therefore should be restricted in terms of who can do it and where it can be done and. Most people, including regular drinkers, think that giving a child even a pint of beer would be wrong. When a study was published in 1993 showing that nearly 70% of 15-year-olds in the country drank that much alcohol in an average week, there was general agreement that this was a serious "social problem". You cannot be served in pubs until you are 18, and not even enter them (unless there is a special children's pass) until you are 14. Drinking is for many people

In addition to copious amounts of hot drinks such as tea, coffee and cocoa, Brits - especially children - drink pumpkin (a sweetened fruit concentrate that needs to be diluted with water) and branded "soft" (non-alcoholic) drinks. They also expect to be able to drink water straight from the tap. Prior to 19 6 0 5, wine was only drunk by the upper echelons of society and was associated in most people's minds with expensive restaurants. Since then, it has grown tremendously in popularity. Beer is still the most popular alcoholic beverage. The most popular pub beer is "bitter", i.e. on tap (Lc. from the keg). does not contain gas and is conventional. like all British beers, drunk at room temperature. A sweeter, darker version of bitter is "mild". These beers have a comparatively low alcohol content. That's one of the reasons people drink so much! Various types of bottled beer, commonly known as 'ales', are also available in most pubs. Beer that contains gas and is more similar to continental varieties is called a "lager". During the 1980s, strong beer became popular with some young people. Because these people were used to drinking weaker traditional beer. sometimes they drank too much and became aggressive and even violent. They therefore became known as "camp rolls". Cider is available on tap in some pubs and pots in some parts of Great Britain, most notably the English Westlands. it's the most common pub drink and not beef. Shandy is half beer and half lemonade. It is reputed to be very good for quenching thirst.



20 food and drink

Coming back from a trip across the English Channel with cheap beer

limited to bars. Wine or beer is not as much a part of domestic life as it is in some other European countries. Most cafes are not allowed to serve beer. For most of the 20th century. Pubs operated under strict laws that limited their opening hours. These have recently been relaxed. Also, many more types of stores now sell alcohol than in the past. However, this decline in negative attitudes towards alcohol has been offset by increased concerns about its effects on health and safety. There are government-sponsored guidelines that set the maximum amount of alcohol people should drink in a week without putting their health at risk. Despite the fact that millions of people pay little attention to them, the general feeling that alcohol can be bad for you has increased. Furthermore. Drink-driving laws have been strengthened and are enforced very strictly. Still, alcohol, especially beer, is an important part of many people's lives. For example, look at the mass rush across the English Channel after the Customs Duty, which we changed in 1992. Beer was much cheaper in France, and people could bring almost as much beer as they wanted. It has been calculated that the single European market cost the UK government around £2.5 million in lost alcohol taxes in that first year.

bares 3-

Meaning of "Bar" in British English

The area in a hotel or other public place where alcoholic beverages may be consumed. 2 The different rooms of a pub. While pubs have always been used by all walks of life, there used to be an informal division of classes. The "public bar" was used by the working class. A danboard and other pub games can be found here. The 'Aloon Bar' was frequented by the middle class. There was a rug on the floor here and the drinks were a little more expensive. Some pubs also had a "private bar". which was even more exclusive. Naturally. no one had (0 demonstrate class affiliation before entering this or that bar. Nowadays most pubs don't care about the distinction. In some the walls between bars have been knocked down and in others the beer costs the same in all 3 Der Counter bars in a pub where you get your drink s.I

The British pub (short for "public house") is one of a kind. This is not just because it differs in character from bars or cafes in other countries. It is also because it is unlike any other public place in the UK itself. Without pubs, Britain would be a less sociable country. The pub is the only place outside where the average person can comfortably meet other people, even strangers, and carry on long conversations with them. In cafes and fast food restaurants. People are expected to drink their coffee and leave. The atmosphere in other restaurants tends to be more formal. But pubs, like fast-food restaurants, are classless. A pub with forty customers is almost always much noisier than a cafe or restaurant with the same number of people. As with so many other aspects of British life, pubs have become a little less distinctive in recent decades. They used to serve almost nothing but beer and spirits. Nowadays you can also get wine, coffee and hot food in most of them. This helped increase its appeal. It used to be unusual for women to go to bars. There are few pubs these days where it's a surprise when a woman walks in. However, pubs have retained their special character. One of its notable aspects is that there is no waiter service. If you want something, you have to ask for it at the bar. This might not sound very comfortable and a strange way to make people feel comfortable and relaxed. But for the British it is just that.

bares ~

I'm Q Pub

The pub This photo of a pub shows some typical features. First, notice that it looks old. Most pubs are like that. It's part of its appeal to tradition. Even a newly built pub usually looks hundreds of years old, inside and out. Second, watch the windows. They are small because they contrast with the large shop windows of the cafes. They help make the pub feel cozy. But also note that it's hard to see the inside of the pub from the outside. Victorians thought it was somehow inappropriate for people to be seen drinking. That's why few pubs have outdoor seating. Instead. Many have a back garden. As children are only allowed in a bar if the bar has a child ID card, a garden can be an important feature for some patrons.

Being served at the table is uncomfortable for many people. It makes them feel like they need to show their best side. But because you have to get your own drinks from pubs, it's literally too much. You can get up and walk whenever you want - it's like being in your own home. This 'at home' atmosphere is reinforced by... How to end the bar relationship between customers and people who work in bars. Staff are expected earlier, unlike pubs, which can now stay open longer than allowed anywhere else to eat or drink in the UK. the}' still need to close to meet regular customers in person to find out what the advertised closing times are. There's drinking and talking with them when they're not serving anyone. So the 'closed weather' traditions were also aided by the availability of pub games (particularly darts). Several and often a television. Phrases associated with this process are well known. dog. Each has its own name, for example, which is announced on a sign outside a few minutes before the official one, always with old-fashioned connotations. Many are named after closing time, the bartender, or the name of an aristocrat (e.g. "The Duke of Bartending shouts 'last order please Cambridge') or a monarch; others take their names from some, the which means that anyone with a traditional trade (such as “As Armas do Pedreiro”) usually wants to buy another drink, should do so immediately. the work]) It would certainly be surprising to see a pub called "The bartender screams "Time, Ladies and Computer Programmers" or "The Ford Escort". For the same reason, gentlemen, please' , and . as with him, the landlord of a pub is referred to as a 'keeper' (he is said to accompany a man first, possibly accompanying almost always) - although in reality he is the opposite of ringing a bell. However, customers do not. He's a tenant. Almost all pubs are owned by a brewery. They have to go right away. They even have "Wirt" who works simply as the brewery's operations manager. But the "drinking time". This term is used because it evokes an earlier era when all legally recognized, privately owned inns were "inns" where travelers could find a bed for the night. it is expected to take about ten minutes. The few pubs that are truly privately owned proudly advertise themselves as "Freihäuser". The practical meaning for the customer is that there is usually a much larger selection of beers inside.

r 89


20 Eat and Drink... No Stalgia A 'farmer's lunch' (consisting of crusty bread, butter, cheese and pickles) is a popular pub snack. Like other traditional pub foods (such as She Hird's Pie), Ir's name evokes traditional country life. Pubs never use symbols of modernity. But modern agriculture is anything but traditional. That's the point of the cartoon. A cattle inseminator is a person who impregnates cows by injecting them with semen! Note his (very untraditional and non-rural) white lab work.

"A beer, please, and a surveyor's lunch..."


Where are you likely to find good British food?


Why are Indian restaurants popular in the UK? Think of all the reasons you can for why you're British.

People prefer to eat food from other countries when they go out to eat.

3 What are the differences (if any) between UK and your country's alcohol laws? what is possible

4 The text mentions the race to the canal

buy cheap alcohol at 199 2. What effect do you think this had on traditional Brits?

Drinking Habits (in terms of what people drink and where they drink it) Why are some people (even some of the people who ran across the Channel) concerned about this trend? 5 How are British pubs different from typical cafes and bars in your country?

Are there reasons for these differences?


• Delia Smith is probably the UK's most popular and well-known food writer and speaker. Her full cooking class, for example. published by BBC Books. it gives a good idea of ​​what the British cook (or would like to cook) at home. • There are many hotels. Restaurant and pub guides published annually detailing the type of food and other facilities available in UK restaurants and pubs. For example. The Good Food Guide published by Whoch Books and the Good Pub Guide published by Vermilion.

21 Sport and competition

... gentlemen and players Think of your favorite sport. Whatever it is, there's a good chance it was first played in the UK, and an even better chance it was played in the UK. The middle class, or the beginning of many modern rules, was first codified in Britain. Public schools (see British Spon means it started as an amateur hobby - a hobby, Chapter 14) of the Victorian era believed that organized competitive activities, in which no one was paid to play, had many psychological benefits. The SE games appealed and took the Pan inside. Also in football. and developed the British sense of "fair play". This concept went far beyond what was thrown at a professional who didn't play by the written rules of the game. It also meant observation base since 1885. One of the unwritten rules that dictated behavior before, during and as the first team to win the FA (Football Association) Cup was a team after game. You had to be a "good loser". Being a cheater was an amateur gambler (Corinthians). embarrassing, but losing was just a "game whistle". Team games were better in many other sports because they promoted "team spirit". Resistance to professionalism. Modern instant play in the UK is very different. "Winning isn't for everyone" and "it's just a game" are still well-known sayings that inspire the sport. Only in 1968 was the amateurish approach of the past reflected. But for modern pros, tennis pros can compete at Wimbledon. Cricket is clearly not just a game. Today there were top players in all sports. to 19 6 2, a stiff speech about having a 'professional attitude' and doing your 'job' well, tincture between 'gentle rudder n' even if, officially. Your sport is still an amateur sport. Despite that. the public school enthusiasm (amateurs) and "players" for sport and the importance attributed to them (professionals). even though the two have had a lasting influence in participating together and learning together. Nowadays. all 'top class' cricketers of current sport in Great Britain. they are professionals.

A national passion Sport probably plays a bigger role in people's lives in Britain than in most other countries. For many, and this is especially true for men, it is Irma in entertainment form. Millions participate in this sport at least once a week. Millions more are regular viewers and follow one or more sports. Every week there are hours of sports broadcasts on TV. Every new newspaper, national or local, fancy or popular, devotes several pages to the sport. Brits are rarely the best in the world at certain sports these days. Yet they are among the best in the world in far more different sports than any other country (British individualism at work again). This chapter looks at the most published sports with the most followings. But it should go unnoticed that hundreds of other sports are played in Britain, each with its small but enthusiastic following. Sollie of these cannot be seen as a


21 spun n and competition n

A gardener with his prized onion... Trophies: real and imaginary quince Sporting competitions in Britain often come with an award that gives them special meaning. The Calcutta Cup The annual rugby union match between England and Scotland is rarely the deciding game in the Five Nations Championship (the sporting calendar). But it matters because it's being contested for the Calcutta Cup, an ornate silver trophy made in India in the 1870s to compete for the Ashes. 18 8 2, after a heavy defeat to Australia, the 'ashes' of English cricket (actually a burnt piece of cricket equipment) were placed in an urn as a symbol of the 'death' of English cricket. In fact, the urn never leaves the Lord's barbecue area. The Triple Crown In rugby union, when one of the four British Isles nations beats all three other nations in the same year. they are recorded as Triple Crow winners, although a physical object called "The Triple Crow" does not exist!

Sport at all by many people. For example, for most people with large gardens, croquet is just a pleasant social pastime on a sunny afternoon. But for some, it's deadly serious competition. The same applies to other games such as bowling, darts or pool. Even board games like the ones you buy at the toy store have their national masters. Think of any hobby. as trivial as it involves some element of competition and sort of here in the UK. There is probably a “national association” that organizes competitions for this. The British love competition so much that they even introduce it to gardening. Many people indulge in informal rivalry with their neighbors over who can grow the best flowers or vegetables. But the rivalry is sometimes formalized. all over the country. there are competitions where gardeners submit their cabbages, leeks, onions, carrots or whatever, in the hope of being deemed "the best." It is similar with animals. There are hundreds of dog and cat shows across the country where owners hope their pet will win an award.

The social importance of sport The importance of practicing sport is recognized by law in the United Kingdom. Each municipality has a duty to provide and maintain playing fields and other facilities, the use of which is usually very cheap and sometimes even free. Spectator sport is also the subject of official public relations. For example, there is a law that prohibits the broadcasting of television coverage of the most famous annual sporting events, such as the cup final and the derby. The Sports Calendar) sold exclusively to satellite channels, which most people can't catch. In these cases, it seems to be the event rather than the sport itself. What is important. Every year the Boat Race and the Grand National are watched on television by millions of people who don't have much interest in rowing or horse racing. Over time, some events have developed a mystique that grants them a higher status than the standard in which they are played deserves. In modern times, for example, the level of rugby in the annual varsity match has been quite low - and yet it is always broadcast live on television. Sometimes the traditions that accompany an event seem to be as important as the sporting competition itself. Wimbledon, for example. it's not just a tennis tournament. It means summer fashion, strawberries and cream, garden parties and long, hot English summer nights. This reputation was an issue for the organizers of the 1993 event, when it was felt that player safety needed to be tightened. As Wimbledon is essentially a middle-class event, British tennis fans would never allow themselves to be treated like football fans. Wimbledon with security fences, police on horseback and other measures to keep fans off the field? It just wouldn't be Wim Bledon! The long history of such events has led to the fact that many of them and


its locations have become world famous. So it's not just... famous sporting venues in the UK that Brits tune in to watch. The Grand National, for example, attracts 30 million viewers. This global spiciness of American football has little to do with the pattern of British sport. Other countries' Wembley (London) and HampdenPark (Glasgow) cup finals are often of better quality and football more fun to watch - but more Europeans watch the English rugby cup final at Iwfckenhcrn (London) than anywhere else. The level of British tennis is low and the WimbleMill Ennium Stadium (Wales) Don is just one of the biggest tournaments in the world. But if you ask any top tennis player in Murrayfield (Edinburgh) you will find that Wim Bledon is the one Lansdowne Rood (Dublin) really wants to beat. Every foosball player in the world dreams of playing Wembley horse racing, every cricket player in the world dreams of playing at Lord's. WimbleFlat: Ascot, Epsom, Newmarket don, Wembley and Lord's (famous sporting venues in D) are the 'National Spiritual Hum: Amree'. Cheltenham Homes' of their respective sports. Sport is a British export!

Cricket Judging by the number of people playing and watching (as well as major sports), cricket is definitely not Britain's national sport. In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, interest is largely confined to the middle class. Only England and a small part of Wales play at the highest level. And even in England, where its enthusiasts come from all walks of life, the majority of the population does not understand its rules. Also, the England team is rarely the best in the world. When one thinks of cricket as England's national game, one thinks less of its popularity or standard.

Cr ic ket Lord's (Londres) The Ol'al (Londres) Old Trafford (Manchester) HeadingJey (Leeds) Trent Bridge (Nottingham) Edgbaston (Birmingham) Golf St. Andrew's (Schottland) Motorsport Silverstone (Northampton) Brands Hatch (Rochester)

... Sporting language Spon's centrality to Britain is indicated by the large number of sporting terms and metaphors that have found their way into everyday language. Here are some of the m. Of cricket on a sticky wicket: in a difficult situation on an easy wicket: in a loss in a happy situation: in a loss an answer to a question or solution to a problem hitting something for six: rejecting something emphatically Play along with a straight stick: Do something honest and direct

Walk away if it's not cricket: It's not the right or fair way to do something (cricket is considered to be the perfect example of the concept of

'fair play' )

having good shifts: having too much or enough time at a given post; having a long life for his racket: without help from anyone else Saved from boxing by the bell: saved from a bad or dangerous situation by a sudden event On the ropes: in a weak position; about to lose or fail Red flea: defeated or confused throwing in the towel in an argument or argument: admitting defeat Horse racing and going over the beam first: winner has the bite between his teeth: determined to be given carte blanche: can do exactly what you want, no restrictions

in the saddle: being in control (in modern times, the phrase "in the driver's seat" is often used instead) From other sports, or sports in general, team player: someone good at cooperating with others in groups running with the pack: has no individual principles, but simply follows the majority blindly, wins easily: easily goes to the dogs: leads an aimless, self-destructive life in the final stretch/on {the last round: in the last phase of a process, a pair safe hands: a reliable person

19 3

19 4

21 Sport and competition

... Cricket Notes • Eleven players on each team. • Test matches between national teams can last up to five days of six hours each. The best club teams play matches for two to four days. There are also one-day games that last around seven hours. • Played at a high level in Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, West Indies (those places in the Caribbean that were once part of the British Empire). It can be considered a 'national sport' in the Indian subcontinent and WCSR India.

A cricket game in progress

English players, but the very English connotations it brings. Cricket is much more than just a sport; symbolizes a way of life - a slow and peaceful rural way of life. Cricket is associated with long sunny summer afternoons, the smell of freshly cut grass and the sound of leather (the ball) combined with willow (the wood used to make cricket bats). Cricket is special because it combines competition with the dream of the British country. Cricket is what the village green is for! As if to emphasize the rural connection, unlike teams in other sports, 'first class' cricket teams in England are not named after towns but after counties (eg Essex and Yorkshire). Cricket is therefore the national English game in a symbolic sense. For some people, however, cricket is more than just a symbol. The comparatively low number of spectators at top-level games does not give an accurate picture of interest in the country. A game of cricket takes up so much time (and Notes on Cricket) that many people just don't need to miss it. In fact, there are millions of people across the country who not only enjoy cricket but are passionate about it! These people spend up to thirty days every summer listening to the live radio commentary of test (=international) games. If you have the opportunity, watch part of the broadcast live on TV. Some people even do both at the same time (turn down the TV volume and listen to the radio). For these people, commentators become popular personalities. When. In 1994, a famous commentator died lamenting to the Prime Minister that "summers will never be the same". And if cricket fans are too busy to listen to the radio commentary, they can always call a dedicated number for the latest score!


Football The official full name of 'soccer' (as it is called in the US and sometimes the UK) is 'association football'. This distinguishes it from other games such as rug by football (almost always simply called "rugby"), Gaelic football, Australian rules football and American football. However, most people in the UK simply call it "soccer". This indicates your dominant role. Across the country except South Wales, it is by far the most popular spectator sport, the most played sport in state schools across the country, and one of the most popular adult participation sports. Numerically, football, not cricket, is the national sport, as it is throughout Europe. British football has traditionally had its greatest working-class following. In general, the intelligence services ignored him. But in the last two decades of the 20th century, it started to attract more interest. The emergence of fanzines is an indication of this. Fanzines are informative, but often highly intelligent and witty, magazines published by the supporters of certain clubs. One or two books of literary merit have been written, focusing not only on players, teams and tactics, but also on the wider social aspects of the game. Cheerful football programs have been broadcast on TV, which also deal with "off the field" subjects. The topic was also very interesting for academics. At the 1990 World Cup, English fans joked that it was impossible to find a hotel room because they had all been taken by the Sociology of Sport team in Great Britain, but football in particular, is generally all male, 'tribal' stuff. In America, the whole family watches baseball. Likewise, the whole family supports the Irish national football team. But in the UK only a handful of children or women attend football matches. Maybe that's why the active support of local teams has a tendency to violence. Football hooliganism was a major problem in England in the 1970s and 1980s. However, by the 1990s it seemed to be on the decline. English fans visiting Europe now behave no worse than fans from many other countries. Attendance at UK club matches has been declining for several decades (under > Big Sport Attendance). Many stadiums are very old. uncomfortable and therefore dangerous for me. Accidents in professional football matches led to the decision to convert stadiums of top and first category clubs into 'all terrain' stadiums. Fans are no longer allowed to stand, jump, scream and swing on the cheap "ladders" behind the gates (there were emotional farewells to this traditional "way of life" at many points). It is believed that sitting better behaves fans. It remains to be seen whether this development will turn football games into family-friendly events.


Watch or participate in huge millions of sports

34 33 32 31 30


28 27 26

25 24 23 22

professional football

9 8 7

6 5

greyhound racing horse racing

4 3




Source: Key Numbers

Rugby League First Class Cricket

19 5

19 6

21 Sport and competition

.... Notes on Rugby • Similar to American football in terms of the ball used (ovoid shape) and its objective (to get the ball over the opposing team's line). But very different in detail - mostly no table. You cannot interfere with a player who is not in possession of the ball. Also different in (Hat. As with all UK sponsors there are no hacks and players do not wear bulletproof vests.

• Fifteen players per team in rugby union and thirteen in rugby league. • Playback time is 80 minutes. • Rugby Union is played at the highest level in the British Isles. France, Australia. South Africa and New Zealand. Also in North America at a high level. Argnuna. Romania and some Pacific Islands. It can be considered the 'national sport' of Wales, New Zealand, Fiji, Western Samoa and Tonga, as well as white South Africans • Rugby League is played at the highest level in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

A rugby match is in progress

Rugby There are two versions of this fast and aggressive ball game: Rugby by Union and Rugby League. They are so similar that someone who is good at one can quickly learn to become good at the other. The real difference between them is in the social history. Rugby union is the older of the two. In the 19th century it was enthusiastically adopted by most public schools in Great Britain. Rugby League split from Rugby Union towards the end of the century. Although it has now spread to many of the places in the world where rugby union is played (c-Nates to rugby), its traditional homeland is the working class of northern England, where there was an opportunity for miners and workers to mingle to earn a living. little extra money for your sporting talents. Unlike rugby union, it has always been a professional sport. Because of this social background, rugby league is seen as one in the UK.

Working class sport whereas rugby union is mainly for the middle class. Except in South Wales. There rugby union is fun for all levels and more popular than football. In Wales, the phrase 'international day' means just one thing - that the national rugby team is playing. In the 70s and 80s some of the best Welsh players were persuaded to 'change codes'. They were 'bought' by one of rugby league's big clubs where they could make a lot of money. Whenever this happened it was seen as a national disaster among the Welsh.

Rugby Union has had some success in selling itself to a wider audience in recent years. As a result, just like football, there was less

An animal in sports

Exclusively working-class in character, rugby union became less ... exclusively middle-class fox hunting. In 1995, amateurism finally gave up. That's how it works with fox hunting. As a group fact, the amateur status of leading rugby union players was already enjoyed by people on horseback dressed in 18th century riding clothes. become meaningless. They received no salary or payment to play, they walked with a pack of dogs. but they received large "expenses" and various promotions when dogs track paid flyers and lectures.

Animals in Sport Traditionally, hunting, shooting and fishing have been the favorite sports of the British upper class. The most common form of hunting is fox hunting - indeed in the UK the word 'hunting' usually means (e-foxhunting). This is a popular pastime among some of the higher social classes and some of the lower social classes, who often see their participation as a sign of new status. Killing birds with firearms is known as 'shooting' in the UK. It is a minority occupation, largely confined to the higher social classes; France has more than three times as many weapons licensed for this purpose as Britain. The birds that humans try to kill (eg Partridge) can only be killed at certain times of the year. The upper classes often organize "shooting festivals" during the "season". The only type of hunting associated with the working class is hare hunting, where greyhounds hunt hares. However, as the vast majority of people in the UK are city dwellers, this too is a minority activity. The only type of "hunting" popular in all walks of life is fishing. In fact, this is the UK's most popular hands-on sport. Between four and five million people go fishing regularly. When fishing is competitive, it is called fishing. In addition to hunting, animals are also used in sports when they run. Horse racing is a popular and ancient sport in Britain, both the 'flat races' and the 'national hunt' races (where there is jumping for the horses), sometimes known as 'tower hurdles'. The former became known as 'the sport of kings' in the 17th century, and modern British royalty have close ties to equestrian sport. Some members of the royal family own racehorses and compete in certain annual races (eg Ascot): Solli and also actively participate in the sports of polo and equestrianism (both of which involve horseback riding). The main attraction of horse racing for most people is the opportunity for gambling (see below). Greyhound racing, although in decline, is still popular for the same reason. In this sport, the dog chases a mechanical rabbit down a racetrack. It is easier to organize than horse racing, and 'the dogs' have a reputation as 'the poor man's race'.

a fox, someone blows a horn and then dogs, horses and riders chase the fox. Often the fox escapes. but if not, the dogs beat the hunters and tear it to pieces. As you can imagine, in a land of animal lovers, where most people have little experience with the harsh realities of nature, fox hunting is strongly opposed by some. The League Against Cruel Sports wants to make it illegal and the campaign has steadily intensified. Violent clashes sometimes break out between fox hunters and rioters (called "saboteurs" by the hunters).

Hunters and saboteurs meet on a fox hunt



2 1 Sport and competition II-


other sports

This sport is similar to American baseball. but it certainly does not have the same image. It has a long history in England as something for people (young and old, male and female) to play together at village festivals. However, it is often not considered a proper "sport". Despite this image, it has recently become the second most popular sport in UK public schools. More traditional sports such as cricket and rugby are being abandoned in favor of multi-purpose sports. which is much easier to organize. Ro unters requires less special equipment, less money and boys and girls can play together. It also takes less time. It is especially aurac uvc for state schools with little money and time. More than a quarter of all fields in state schools are used with 1I 0 W for rounding. Just football. which is played in nearly half of all state schools. it is more popular.

Almost every sport that exists is played in the UK. Like the sports mentioned above, hockey (usually on a field, but also on ice) is very popular, and both basketball (for men) and netball (for women) are growing in popularity. That's the old game of too many rounders. The British like team games. Individual sports such as athletics, cycling, gymnastics and swimming have relatively small followings. Many people are only interested in the m when British competitors are doing well in international events. The most popular individual sports are those where socializing is an important aspect (such as tennis, golf, sailing and billiards). It is not possible in this context, except in international competitions. The only athletics event that generates much enthusiasm is the annual London Marathon. Most of the tens of thousands who participate in this race are "fun runners" just trying to complete it, sometimes in outrageous attire, to raise money for charity. There seem to be two major exceptions to this tendency to favor team play. One of these is boxing, whose attraction lies, in part, in the opportunity to play. But while boxing is losing popularity, the other exception, motor racing, is growing in popularity.

Gambling II - A nation of gamblers

• • • •

In 1993, Britons pledged a total of £12.7 billion - that is, £289 for every adult in the country. £9.5 billion was won. The government collected just over £1 billion in taxes. Bookmakers took the rest. About half of all cash bets in 1993 were on horses or greyhounds. 74% of all adults played at least once during the year. At least once every two weeks: 39% attend soccer games; 20% played slot machines and fruit machines: 18% played bingo; 14% put money into horses. In the UK, in 1993, there was one belt shop for every 3,000 adults. There was also:

• I 20 casinos; • 120,000 fruit machines; • 1,000 bingo halls; • 1,000 lo ncn cs: • Autodromos S"9:

• 37 gre yho e stad ios ,

Even if they don't participate or watch each other, Brits love to get involved in sports. They can do this by betting on future outcomes. Gambling is widespread in all walks of life. Sport is so fundamental that the word athlete used to be synonymous with player. When the starting procedure for the Grand National failed in '93, preventing the race from taking place, it was widely considered a national disaster. The £70 million staked on the outcome (over £1 for every man, woman and child in the country!) all had to be returned. Billions of pounds are wagered on horse racing every year. This activity is so well known that everyone in the country, even those who are not interested in horse racing, . understand the meaning of a question like "Who won the 2 3 0 at Chester?" (Which horse won the race due to be held at Chester Racecourse at 1.30pm today? The questioner probably wants to know why he or she put any money into the result.) The Penny The important role of horse racing in the game is also evident in one of the names used to refer to companies and individuals whose business it is to place bets. Although they are commonly known as 'bookmakers', they sometimes refer to themselves as 'turf counters' (Cturf), which is a word for land where grass grows.



.... The sports calendar This graphic shows the seasons of the most popular sports in Great Britain and therefore the main sporting events that take place each year. There are others. less regular events that may be very important and other annual events in specific sports that are more important to fans of those sports. However, these are the ones that are known to the general public.




Five Nations Championship Rugby Union: played over five Saturdays between England, France, Ireland, Scotland and Wales



The Boat Race: a rowing competition between teams from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge


The cup final: Other sports and other nations in Great Britain have their own cup finals. but the English Football Association (FA) final at Wembley is the cup final


The Derby: Horse racing on flat terrain (no jumps) at Epsom Racecourse. 'Royal' Ascot: Horse racing where women's fashion gets as much media attention as Wimbledon's tennis fortnight


august 1st

The Charity Shield football match at Wembley Stadium between last season's cup final and league winners





• flat season for horse racing • rugby season

The Great Nation; ste eplechase for horses at Aintree racecourse near Liverpool ol

The Varsity Match: Rugby between Oxford and Cambridge Universities at Twickenham

• national hunting season for horse racing (over show jumping)

professional football season n

cric is season n



21 Sport and competition

Besides horses and dogs, the most popular form of game associated with sports is football. Every week, more than ten million people bet a small amount on the results of Saturday's professional games. Another popular form of gambling, stereotyped for middle-aged, working-class women, is bingo. Nonconformist religious groups (see Chapter 3) traditionally frown on gambling, and their disapproval has had some influence. Perhaps that's why Britain didn't have a national lottery until 1994. But if people want to play, they do. For example, before the launch of the national lottery, Britons would bet £250,000 on which company would be licensed to operate. The country's leading bookmakers are willing to offer odds on almost anything if asked. Who will be the next leader of the Labor Party? Will it rain during the Wimbledon tennis tournament? Will it snow on Christmas Day? All of this creates opportunities for a “vibration”. QUESTIONS

, the manager of Liverpool Football Club once said in the 1970s: "Football is not a matter of life and death for me – it's more important than that!" Do I think his comment is typical of the British attitude towards sport (traditional, modern, both or neither)? The main disadvantage of 2 Cricket '5 is that it cannot be played during or immediately after rain because the grass is too wet. In the early 1990s, it was suggested that first-class cricket be played on plastic surfaces so that play could resume once the rain stopped. English cricket enthusiasts were shocked by this proposal. A member of the MCC (Marylebone Cricket Club, the club that partially controls the sport in England) commented: "The man must have been drunk when he thought about it". How do you explain this extreme reaction?

3 In 993, Roddy Doyle, winner of the literary Booker Prize (see Chapter 22), was a regular on a televised football show. What significance did that have for British football history? Do your country's sociological associations with football differ from those in the UK? 4 Every year, for around three months, Brits spend millions of pounds betting on the results of Australian rules football – a sport that the vast majority have no interest (or understanding)! Why do you think they are doing this? What does this tell us about British attitudes to sports and gambling? Are the main forms of gambling in the UK the same as in your country?


• Copies of football club fanzines can be purchased from the Sports Pages, Caxton Walk, 94-96 Charing Cross Road, London WC2H OjG. The Re is a general football fanzine called When Saturday Carnes, available at the same address or 4th floor, 2 Pear Tree Court, London ECIR ODS. This includes details of most of the fanzines available for each club.

20 1

22 As Artes

Art in society... What are "the arts"? In the past, interest in the arts in Britain was largely confined to an elite few. Compared to fifty years ago, many more people read Theartsis today, a generic term for literature, visiting art galleries, going to the theater and attending concerts, nature, music, painting, sculpture, crafts, theatre, opera, ballet, cinema etc. . However, most of it is fact The British generally prefer their seriousness, i.e. their sport, their television and videos (D-Videos) and their other leisure time showing particular examples of these activities in all 'cultural' activities w As arts are seen in Britain as a mixture of public apathy and "light" and can be referred to simply as private enthusiasm. Instead, fine art or fine art is often used to refer to art that is not actively funded. They take up a lot of space, but government financial support for the arts is at an all-time low in terms of esteem in Western countries. It was the lowest in the 1980s. One of (like painting and sculpture). The principles of Thatcherism must be promoted in the arts. This is, for example, what “market forces” encompass. The government cut the money it gave to art in schools. The word "artist" can sometimes mean "Council of the Arts", the organization that allocates funds for projects and refers to a person involved in the fine arts. It was politically acceptable to do so in the name of the arts in general, and sometimes one considered that "culture" was of interest to a small fraction of the wealthy who worked in any field of art. In only. Thus, government action was seen as democratic - in this chapter it is used to mean the refusal to subsidize the tastes of the rich. The antithesis. The argument that such an attitude is undemocratic because it makes 'culture' too expensive for the common man carries little weight in Britain. At school, subjects such as art and music, although always present, tend to be marginalized. In the national curriculum (see Chapter 1+), they are the only two 'core' subjects that pupils are allowed to drop completely by age 14. Also, art doesn't usually get a lot of publicity. TV programs on 'cultural' themes are often shown late into the night. Many high-profile arts festivals are held across the country every summer (D – Annual Arts Festivals), but the word culture has two meanings that most people don't even know about its non-existence. In this book, in its antrosome of the world's finest collections of painting and sculpture, it is used in a logical sense, meaning "way of life." that's because the most famous artists themselves have comparatively few synonyms for "the arts" When it's public recognition Some British artists have international renown This is put in quotes in this chapter and yet most people in Britain don't even know their names ,

20 2

22 Art... Videos Every year. Videos worth over £1 billion are sold or rented in the UK. More than 60% of all households in the country own a video recorder. Every year. On average, these households rent about 25 videos each and purchase about five videos each. Here's a graph showing the types of videos people watched in 1993.

V and os for sale and rent % of current market


An amateur theater production

I Kinder/ Disney 31 2


3 TV/Other 4 Music 5 Fitness/Sports


22 9 8


I Dramatic Thriller 2 Action/Adventure

37 29

3 Comedy


4 Kinder/Family 5 Sci-Fi 6 Horror

4 4 3

It is very rare, for example, for a British artist to use his fame in the arts as a springboard onto the political stage. If you ask a person AVCR's age to name some famous painters. composers. Opera singers and ballet dancers would probably give you few British names - if any. It's almost as if the British wanted to present themselves as a nation of philistines. And yet hundreds of thousands of people are enthusiastically involved in one art or another, but (in typically British fashion) with more or less amateur or pan-lime status. For example. Everyone (Own) in the country has at least one association of "amateur playwrights" that put on regular performances and fees that are not enough to cover their costs In all countries, thousands of people learn crafts (such as pottery) in their spare time and sometimes often sell their work at local craft stores. Likewise, there are thousands of musicians from all over the world who are friends, playing across the country for very little money and making their own recordings under very difficult circumstances. Some British amateur choirs such as the Bach Choir of London and the King's College Chapel Choir in Cambridge are known throughout the world.

Characteristics of British Art and Literature If there is one characteristic of British art that seems to stand out, it is its lack of identification with broader intellectual trends. It is generally not ideologically committed. it is not associated with any particular political movement. Playwrights and directors see, for example. they may be leftist in their political stance, but the plays they produce rarely convey a direct political message. The same is largely true of British novelists and poets. His writing is typically naturalistic and not associated with any particular intellectual movement. They are more individualistic and more likely to explore emotions.

Theater and cinema one

than ideas, the personal more than the political. Whatever the critics say... Annual arts festivals say. It is not uncommon for British playwrights and novelists to claim that there are Maoy festivals all the time, that they record only "what they see" and that they are not aware of Britain during the year. but these are perhaps the best known. intend any social or symbolic message. Similarly, British artwork tends to be individualistic within its own field. That is. Aldeburgh artists don't usually see themselves as belonging to this or that June Movement. East Anglia. Classic music . Relatively familiar environment. ment'. In any field of art, even those where British artists enjoy a strong international reputation, it is difficult to identify an 'Edinburgh International Brushstroke Festival School'. t August All services. including avant-garde. More than that, the art style is quite conventional. Of course, there are ten different avant-garde performances, but with the possible exception of painting and performing in the city. world famous. Sculpture. It is not through these works that British artists The Proms became famous. In the 1980s, Peter Brook was a highly successful July/September stage actor. London. Classic Director R. But when he occasionally stages avant-garde productions. music . "Proms" is Shan for "Prom, he drove in Paris!" enades', so named because of most of these characteristics of British artists' work (solitary individualism, the seats are taken from the album to express their usefulness in conventional formats). Perhaps it is possible to find an explanation for the apparent contradiction between them and not in the room where the concerts take place and where the audience stands and walks. On the one hand, the low level of public support for art and, on the other hand, the great enthusiasm of individuals. There is Glyndebourne throughout the summer. Broadly speaking, a common assumption in Britain seems to be that the artistic creation is a country house in Sussex. Opera. it is a personal matter, not a social one, and therefore the flow of artistic talent cannot be manipulated. Either it happens or it doesn't happen. Royal l Nat ional l Eist eddfod July. Wales. Music, Poetry and Dance This is not what society should be responsible for.

theater and cinema etc.

from many different countries. Mainly in the form of competitions, with special categories for Welsh performing arts.

Theater has always been very strong in Britain. Its center is, of course, London, where successful plays can sometimes be shown without Glastonbury and Reading. But all the big cities in the established rock festivals. The country has its theaters. Even small towns often have Bradford and Cambridge Festival Theaters as their 'repertoire', which briefly stage various plays with a folklore focus. the same group of professional actors (a repertory company). It seems that the traditional form of the play gives the discreet British people a safe opportunity to see behind the mask of accepted social behavior. The country's most successful and respected playwrights are often those who explore the dark side of personality and personal relationships (though often through comedy). ... They ran and ran! British theater has such a great acting tradition that Hollywood is always looking for her talent to act in films. British Television In the second half of the 20th century. the two oldest do the same. In addition, Bro adway keeps an eye on London productions when looking for their upcoming theater productions such as The Blockbuster Musical. British theater is much admired in Mousetrap (from an Agatha Short novel). So it's me Christie) and the comedy No St.'\: The thing British actors are proud of. Many of the most famous. Please, we're British. Both played rigged television actors, although in the latter medium they were able to make the most of their money for over fifteen years, they continue to see themselves as being heard first. theater actor.


20 4

22 The Arts .. British Films Here are some of the most successful and/or viewed British films of the 1980s and 1990s: Chariots of Fire (198 t) Gregory's Girl (198 t)

Gandhi ('982) A Letter to Breschnew (t 985) My Beautiful La underette (198 S-) A Room with a View (1985) A Fish Called Wanda (1988) Shirley Valentin e (1989)

Henry V ('989) Howard's End (1992) The Crying Game (1992) Much Ado About Nothing (t 993) Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) The Full Monty (1997) No uing Hill (1999)

.. SOME KNOWN ARTISTIC PLACES The Shakespeare Memorial Theater in Stratford is home to the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). All other locations mentioned here are in London. Theaters include the Old Vic (home of the National Theater Company). Sereia, Corte Real and Barbacã (which also hosts the RSC). For opera and ballet. there's the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden and the Coliseum, where Sadler's Wells Company performs. The South Bank area is home to several concert venues (most notably the Royal Festival Hall) and the National Theatre.

In contrast, cinema in the UK is often not seen as part of 'art' - it's just entertainment. Partly for this reason, the UK is unique among major European countries when it comes to almost giving

no financial help for its film industry. So, although going to the cinema is a regular habit for many more people than going to the theatre, British film directors often have to go to Hollywood because the resources they need are not available in Britain. As a result, comparatively few quality films are made in the country. This is not because there is no cinema experience. Yes. American production often uses studios and technical facilities in Great Britain. Furthermore, some of the films that the UK is able to produce receive significant international attention (e-British films). But even such films often cause financial losses.

Music Classical music is a minority stake in the UK. Few classical musicians, whether British or foreign, are known to the general public. When they do, it's usually due to circumstances unrelated to their music. The Italian tenor Pavarotti, for example, became famous in the country thanks to an aria he sang

it was used by the BBC to present its coverage of the 1990 World Cup. Despite this low profile, thousands of Britons are committed musicians and many public libraries have a well-stocked music department. Several British orchestras, soloists, singers, choirs, opera and ballet companies and some annual music events are internationally recognized. In the 1960s, British artists had a major impact on the development of music in the modern or "pop" language. The Beatles and other British groups were responsible for several innovations that were adopted by popular musicians in the United States and the rest of the world. This included writing the lyrics and music by the artists themselves and more active audience participation. The lyrics of their songs also helped free the pop idiom from its own

The Last Night of Proms (c- Annual Festivals of the Arts)

literally from z

previous confinement to the themes of youthful love and affection. Other British artists in groups such as Pink Floyd and Cream played an important role in similarly developing the musical structure of popular music. Pop music has been a huge and profitable industry in Britain since the 1960s. The Beatles received the honor (see Chapter 7) of the MBE (Member of the British Empire) for their services to British exports. Collectively, over 200 million recorded songs of all types are sold in the UK every year - and the vast majority are pop music. Many global trends have emerged in Britain, and British 'pop' artists have actively sought to push the boundaries between popular music, folk music and classical music.

literary king

.. The Arts and Television There are now only a quarter as many cinema seats in Britain as there were in 1961. This decline is generally believed to be due to the popularity of television. Indeed, television has taken on an increasingly important supporting role in the arts. The production of some quality British films was only possible thanks to financial help from Channel 4. The BBC regularly commissions new musical works for the Proms. Television drama and comedy help keep hundreds of actors at work. Also, television can really help to promote other art forms. When a book is dramatized on television, sales often skyrocket. The most spectacular example of this occurred in the late 1960s The Forsyre Saga, a series of novels by John Galsworthy. it had been out of print for several decades. When an adaptation was shown on the BBC, half a million copies of the books were sold!

Although the British are comparatively uninterested in formal education and watch a lot of television, they are still avid readers. Many people in the literary world say that British literature lost its way in the late 20th century. The last British author to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1983 was William Golding. Many others disagreed with this opinion. But there is no doubt that much of the exciting new literature that has been written in English and published in the UK in recent years has been written by people outside the UK. The Booker Prize is the UK's most prestigious award for a novel. Starting with Salman Rushd dh in 1981, nine of the next fourteen winners were writers from former British colonies such as Canada, India, Ireland and Nigeria. Whilst any of the best 'serious' British writers manage to be both popular and profound, the vast majority of books that are... lots of books! literature read in Britain could not be classified as "serious" literature. Britain is, for the truly learned reader, the home of what may be called "middle" literature. (That is, the British Library (a department halfway between serious or "advanced" literature and the popular or British Museum) has over 10 books of "pulp" fiction.) For example, dist The British genre of millions of detectives, the 320th Fiction (works by writers like Agatha Christie and Ruth Rendell) has been on shelves for miles. Currently regarded as entertainment rather than literature - but it is entertainment - the library is required to keep a copy of every book published in Men for the intelligent reader. There are many British authors, mostly country. However, for women (Norah Lofts and Rummer Godden, for example) who write, this obligation is likely to disappear in novels that are sometimes classified as "novels" but have a future. It is very difficult to go deeper and more seriously than that term usually implies. you organize. Until [993, his collection was neither popular blockbusters nor the kind of book that expands at a rate of (1)0 book centimeters per hour. It has been reviewed in the reputable literary press. And yet they are read more than 6,000 times by hundreds of thousands of people every year. Editions of Shakespeare's plays and in 1993 more than half of the top 100 books from over 100 different editions in UK public libraries were novels. Many were most Charles Dickens novels. The average brow type. The rest weren't easy stories, but the upshot of it all is that it can get romantic (she's young and pretty, he's tall, dark, and tall, and it takes two days to find a specific book!

2 05


22 The arts... A kid could do this! The British often complain about modern abstract painting, saying, 'It doesn't look very special to me. A four year old could do that. Well, in 1993, a four-year-old did. One of the paintings offered to the Manchester Academy of Fine Arts for its annual exhibition was a work entitled Rhythm of the Trees. Academy experts liked it and included it in the exhibition. Only later did they discover that the creator, Carly Johnson, was four years old (the title was an idea of ​​her grandfather). The news of this discovery was greatly rejoiced throughout Great Britain. Everyone loves it. Experts are made to look like fools, especially when they are experts in something most people don't understand. It never occurred to many people that perhaps a child's genius had been discovered. Someone must have liked Carlv's painting too - it sold for £291)

really modern

with very strong jaw; Whatever happens during the story, they end up in each other's arms - forever). The British publisher that sells more books than any other is Mills & Boon, whose books are exclusively of this type. It's been more than 200 years since abandoned poetry was the normal form of literary self-expression. However, at the end of the 20th century, poetry is surprisingly and increasingly popular in Britain. Poetry books sell in comparatively large numbers. Its sales are not as large as sales of novels, but they are large enough for some small publishers to make their living entirely from publishing poetry. Many poets are invited to present their work on the radio and at art festivals. Many of these poets are not scholars and their writing is accessible to laypeople. Perhaps the "pop" idea and the immediate availability of sound recordings have meant that more people are more comfortable with spoken verse than were fifty years ago.

Fine art painting and sculpture is not as popular as music in Britain. There's a general feeling that it takes an expert to appreciate them, especially when they're contemporary. Small private art galleries where you can see paintings to buy them are rare. However, London is one of the most important centers in the international collector world. The two main auction houses Sotheby's and Christie's are world famous. Until the 1980s, the main museums and galleries in the country did not charge admission. Most do now, although sometimes payment is voluntary. This has generated many complaints that a great tradition of free education has been lost.

Doubts and Suggestions... Museums and Art Galleries

London's main museums are the British Museum (the national collection of antiquities), the Victoria and Alben Museum, which houses the largest exhibition of decorative arts in the world, the Natural History Museum and the Science Museum. There are a number of other smaller specialist museums in London and the rest of the country, usually with a focus on British history and 'heritage'. . London art galleries that house permanent collections include the National Gallery, the

the adjacent National Portrait Gallery and Tate Britain, the national gallery of British artists from the period to the present. These galleries also host special temporary exhibitions in a variety of shows, some of which are extremely popular. The Royal Academy is famous for its annual summer exhibition. Outside London there is the Burrell Collection near Glasgow and the Tate Galleri in Liver Pool and St Ives. Most major cities have their own museums and art galleries.



How does the UK government justify its low spending policy on the arts? Does your country's government subsidize the arts and encourage artistic endeavors in schools and elsewhere? What evidence can you find in this chapter to support the view that the arts only interest a small minority of Britons? What evidence can you find to support the opposite view - that interest in art is widespread? How can there be a grain of truth in these two opinions?

3. Which areas of the arts seem to be particularly valued and appreciated in Britain and which seem to be ignored or undervalued? How does appreciation of different aspects of art differ in your country? 4 Are the British well aware of the distinction between high art or 'culture' and 'entertainment' across a wide range of people from different social backgrounds and with different levels of education?


• Most major museums publish guides to their collections and point out their most valuable exhibits, which are usually pictured in the guides. • Any biography of one of the great figures of British theater of this century, such as Sir Laurence Olivier (there is one published by Fontana, written by Donald Spoto), would reveal much about the history of theater in Britain and beyond British theater in general.



23 Holidays and Specials . Britain is occasionally a country ruled by routine. It has fewer holidays than any other country in Europe and fewer than North America. (However, Northern Ireland has two additional ones). Even New Year's Day wasn't an official holiday in England and Wales until recently (but so many people made it a holiday anyway that it was thought it might as well be made official). There are also almost no semi-national holidays. Most official holidays fall just before or just after a weekend, so the practice of building a 'bridge' is almost unheard of. Furthermore, there is no tradition

additional local holidays in certain locations. Although the origin of the word "holiday" is "holy day", not all holidays (commonly known as "bank holidays") are associated with religious celebrations. The British also seem to do comparatively poorly when it comes to annual leave. These are not as long as many others.

Countries. While the average employee gets four weeks of paid vacation a year, no city in the country would ever welcome a visitor.

get the impression that the place was "closed" for the summer break. (In fact, about 40% of the population goes nowhere for the holidays.)

Traditional Seaside Holidays The British upper class became fashionable in the late 18th century for seaside holidays. The middle class soon followed, and when given the chance (around the beginning of the 20th century), the working class did too. It soon became normal for families to spend a week or two a year at one of the seaside resorts that sprang up to cater to this new crowd.

Market. The best known are located near large cities (e-holiday resorts in England). These seaside towns quickly developed certain features that are now considered typical of the 'traditional' English seaside resort. They have a few hotels where the richest people stay, but most families stay in pensions. These are small family businesses offering 'bed and breakfast' or, more rarely, 'full board' (ie all meals provided). Some streets in beach resorts are filled with nothing but guesthouses. Food at these restaurants and venues is cheap and conventional, with an emphasis on fish and chips.

Férias tradicionais à beira-mar ... estereótipo do rock, animação durante o dia com sol perto da praia onde as crianças constroem castelos de areia, compram gelados. Há algum tipo de creme doce com ele e às vezes fazem passeios de burro. Os adultos mais velhos muitas vezes não se sentem como resorts. Este é "Stein", um bastão de doces duro e grosso. Cada resort faz um esforço para nadar. Eles gostam de sentar em suas espreguiçadeiras, nas quais aparecem as letras de seus nomes, e ocasionalmente remam com a saia ou a calça através do bastão para que uma perna fique puxada para cima. A água está sempre fria e, apesar dos esforços para obter água limpa de 'Brig hton Rock', 'Blackpool it up', às vezes muito suja. Mas para os adultos que nadam, alguns resorts arrasam e por aí vai. têm cabanas de madeira na praia ou perto dela, conhecidas como "barracas de praia", "barracas de praia" ou "cabanas de natação" onde as pessoas podem vestir seus trajes de banho. Nadar e tomar sol sem roupas é raro. Todos os resorts têm vários outros tipos de atrações, incluindo parques de diversões mais ou menos permanentes. À noite e quando chove, há fliperamas, bingos, salões de dança, discotecas, atres, boliche e assim por diante, muitos dos quais localizados no píer. Esta estrutura arquitetônica exclusivamente britânica é uma plataforma que se estende até o mar. Os grandes resorts têm decorações que se iluminam à noite. As “Iluminações de Blackpool”, por exemplo, são famosas. Outro destino de férias tradicional que era muito popular na Grã-Bretanha nas décadas de 1950 e 1960 é o Holiday Camp, onde os visitantes de A Rock com lojas ficam em chalés em vilas fechadas com toda a comida e entretenimento organizados para o m. Budin's e Pontin's, as empresas que possuem a maioria deles são nomes bem conhecidos no Reino Unido. O bom humor forçado característico desses acampamentos, horários rígidos de refeição e eventos como concursos de joelho e concursos de beleza deram lugar a um ambiente mais descontraído.




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